Serotonin is a chemical produced by the body that enables brain cells and other nervous system cells to communicate with one another. Too little serotonin in the brain is thought to play a role in depression. Too much, however, can lead to excessive nerve cell activity, causing a potentially deadly collection of symptoms known as serotonin syndrome. Serotonin syndrome symptoms often begin within hours of taking a new medication that affects serotonin levels or excessively increasing the dose of one you are already taking. Symptoms may include: Confusion Agitation or restlessness Dilated pupils Headache Changes in blood pressure and/or temperature Nausea and/or vomiting Diarrhea Rapid heart rate Tremor Loss of muscle coordination or twitching muscles Shivering and goose bumps Heavy sweating In severe cases, serotonin syndrome can be life threatening. If you experience any of these symptoms, you or someone with you should seek medical attention immediately: High fever Seizures Irregular heartbeat Unconsciousness Serotonin syndrome can occur if you are taking medications, particularly antidepressants that affect the body's level of serotonin. The greatest risk of serotonin syndrome occurs if you are taking two or more drugs and/or supplements together that influence serotonin. The condition is more likely to occur when you first start a medicine or increase the dose. The most commonly prescribed class of antidepressants, which work by increasing serotonin, are the serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs).These include citalopram (Celexa), escitalopram (Lexapro), fluoxetine (Prozac), fluvoxamine (Luvox), paroxetine (Paxil), and sertraline (Zoloft). Other prescription and over-the-counter drugs that can raise serotonin levels alone or in combination to cause serotonin syndrome include: Serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), a class of antidepressants including desvenlafaxine (Khedezla), desvenlafaxine succinate (Pristiq), duloxetine (Cymbalta), levomilnacipran (Fetzima), and venlafaxine (Effexor). Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), a class of antidepressants including isocarboxazid (Marplan), phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), and transdermal selegiline (EMSAM) Buspirone (BuSpar), a drug used to treat anxiety disorders Desyrel ( Trazodone ), a drug prescribed for depression or insomnia Migraine treatments such as almotriptan (Axert), Amerge (naratriptan), rizatriptan (Maxalt), sumatriptan (Imitrex), and zolmitriptan (Zomig) Certain pain medications, including fentanyl (Sublimaze, Fentora), fentanyl citrate (Actiq), meperidine (Demerol), pentazocine (Talwin), and tramadol (Ultram) Dextromethorphan , a cough suppressant found in many over-the-counter and prescription cough medicines or cold medicines Certain medications prescribed for nausea, such as granisetron (Kytril), metoclopramide (Reglan), and ondansetron (Zofran) Antidepressants that affect multiple serotonin receptors, such as vortioxetine (Trintellix -formerly Brintellix) and vilazodone (Viibryd) Some illegal drugs, such as LSD and cocaine, and dietary supplements, including St. John's wort and ginseng, can also lead to serotonin syndrome when combined with antidepressants that affect serotonin. The FDA recently asked drug manufacturers to include warning labels on their products to let patients know about the potential risk of serotonin syndrome. If you are uncertain about drugs you take or have been prescribed, check the label or speak with your doctor. Don't stop any medication before talking to your doctor. Serotonin Syndrome Diagnosis There is no single test to diagnose serotonin syndrome. Your health care provider will ask about your medical history, including medication, supplement, and recreational drug use, and perform a physical exam. Other conditions may cause symptoms that are similar to serotonin syndrome. Lab tests to exclude other causes of symptoms may be ordered. Serotonin Syndrome Treatments People with serotonin syndrome are typically hospitalized for observation and treatment of symptoms. For example, benzodiazepines are given to treat agitation and/or seizures. Intravenous fluids are given to maintain hydration. Removing the drug responsible for the serotonin syndrome is critical. Hydration by intravenous (IV) fluids) is also common. In severe cases, a medication called cyproheptadine (Periactin) that blocks serotonin production may be used. INSTAGRAM: https://www.instagram.com/the_bipolar_barbie TWITTER: https://twitter.com/BipolarBarbieau FACEBOOK: https://www.facebook.com/thebipolarbarbie/ YOUTUBE: www.youtube.com/c/bipolarbarbie WEBSITE: www.bipolarbarbie.com
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1. What medicines can be used to treat Migraine ?? 2.What are medicines which can be used to prevent Migraine attacks ?? 3. How to remember medicines for Migraine ??A migraine is a primary headache disordercharacterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe. Typically, the headaches affect one half of the head, are pulsating in nature, and last from two to 72 hours.Associated symptoms may include nausea, vomiting, and sensitivity to light, sound, or smell. The pain is generally made worse by physical activity.Up to one-third of people have an aura: typically a short period of visual disturbance which signals that the headache will soon occur.Occasionally, an aura can occur with little or no headache following it.These drugs are taken at the onset of migraine symptoms or auras to relieve a headache or reduce its severity. Taking any of these drugs too often can lead to a rebound headache, headaches that arise from overuse of medication, which then necessitate additional medication. If you need to use acute migraine drugs more than nine times per month, talk to your doctor about possible preventive treatments. Painkillers Some over-the-counter painkillers are commonly used for migraine, but many are only available in prescription strength. Aside from acetaminophen, an analgesic that only relieves pain, these drugs are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), which relieve pain and reduce inflammation: acetaminophen (Excedrin, Tylenol)aspirindiclofenac (Cataflam)ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin)ketorolac (Toradol)naproxen (Aleve) Many over-the-counter drugs marketed specifically for migraine or headaches in general combine one or more of the drugs above with a small amount of caffeine, which can make them work more quickly and effectively, especially for mild migraine headaches. Possible side effects of long-term NSAID use include: heart attackstrokekidney damagestomach ulcers Ergotamines Ergotamines were the first class of drugs used specifically for migraines. They cause blood vessels around your brain to contract and can relieve a migraine within a few minutes. Ergotamines are available as pills, tablets that dissolve under your tongue, nasal sprays, suppositories, and injections. They are generally taken at the first sign of headache symptoms, and some have the option to take additional doses every 30 minutes if the headache continues. Some ergotamines are: dihydroergotamine (DHE-45, Migranal)ergotamine (Ergomar)ergotamine and caffeine (Cafatine, Cafergot, Cafetrate, Ercaf, Migergot, Wigraine)methysergide (Sansert)methylergonovine (Methergine) Ergotamines can have dangerous side effects. They can cause birth defects and heart problems, and are toxic in high doses. If you are pregnant or breast-feeding or have heart disease, you should not take ergotamines. Ergotamines can also interact negatively with other drugs, including antifungal and antibiotic medications. Triptans Triptans are a newer class of drug that increases serotonin levels in your brain, reducing inflammation and constricting blood vessels, effectively ending a migraine. Triptans are available as pills, nasal sprays, injections, and tablets that dissolve under your tongue, and work quickly to stop a migraine. Some triptans are: almotriptan (Axert)eletriptan (Relpax)frovatriptan (Frova)naratriptan (Amerge)rizatriptan (Maxalt, Maxalt-MLT)sumatriptan (Imitrex)sumatriptan and naproxen (Treximet)zolmitriptan (Zomig) Possible side effects of triptans include: tingling or numbness in your toesdrowsinessdizzinessnauseatightness or discomfort in your chest or throat People with heart problems or who are at risk for stroke should avoid triptans. Triptans can also cause the potentially fatal serotonin syndrome, if taken with other drugs that increases serotonin, such as antidepressants. Antinausea Drugs These drugs reduce nausea and vomiting that can accompany severe migraines. They are usually taken along with a painkiller, as they do not reduce pain: dimenhydrinate (Gravol)metoclopramide (Reglan)prochlorperazine (Compazine)promethazine (Phenergan)trimethobenzamide (Tigan) These drugs may make you drowsy, less alert, or dizzy, and have other possible side effects. Opioids If migraine pain does not respond to other painkillers and you can’t take ergotamines or triptans, your doctor may prescribe opioids, much more powerful painkillers. Many migraine drugs are a combination of opioids and painkillers. Some opiods are: codeinemeperidine (Demerol)morphineoxycodone (OxyContin) Opioids carry a serious risk of addiction, so they are usually prescribed sparingly. PREVENTIVE TREATMENT Drugs for preventive treatment If you experience migraines frequently, your doctor may prescribe a preventive drug to reduce the frequency and intensity of migraines. These drugs are taken on a regular basis, usually daily, and may be prescribed alone or in combination with other drugs. It may take several weeks or months.
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http://usmle.kyujinjeon.com/side-effects-of-triptan-usage/ Background Information: Triptan drugs are used to alleviate the symptoms of a migraine attack or cluster headache. Mnemonic: “Flashing Tinkling Neck Ties” Flashing - Flushing Tinkling - Tingling Necktie - Neck Tightness Mnemonic Aid: To solidify this mnemonic into your memory, Google flashing necktie. I am pretty sure these ties will aggravate people suffering from migraine attacks. Quizlet Flash Cards: https://quizlet.com/143098112/qs-36-second-usmle-mnemonic-video-series-flash-cards/ Study Aid Suggestions: http://www.picmonic.com/referrals/4EGX0XWP6S6ALGR16 * Picmonic really helped me to push through basic sciences and saved me lots of time. Here is a referral link for you to receive 1 year of ‘Picmonic for Medicine’ for as low as $99/year. This is definitely a great study aid to study smart!
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...meaning that you will no longer be able to experience human emotions. you will be emotionally numb or blunt. you may also end up with sexual dysfunction and insomnia. even if you withdraw from these pills, these side effects may be permanent. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9-6pmsVOe3g = real case of a man affected by ssri induced sexual dysfunction http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e-oo_UD5B9A = girl who is emotionally numb due to an ssri http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sk0mEw9vzuY glaxosmithkline andrew witty gskvision shareholders stock market report gsk
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Here is my review of the natural precursor to serotonin called 5-HTP. I also go through a few other things and a bit of an update, as I've not done a video for sooooooo looooong haha. Instagram- dynamitejetmoom
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Video abstract of review paper "Spotlight on frovatriptan: a review of its efficacy in the treatment of migraine" published in the open access journal Drug Design, Development and Therapy by Gianni Allais and Chiara Benedetto. Abstract: Migraine is a common neurovascular disorder, affecting millions of people worldwide. Current guidelines recommend triptans as first-line treatment for moderate-to-severe migraine attacks. Frovatriptan is a second-generation triptan with a longer terminal elimination half-life in blood than other triptans (~26 hours). Three double-blind, randomized crossover preference studies have been recently conducted, assessing efficacy and safety of frovatriptan versus rizatriptan, zolmitriptan, and almotriptan, respectively. Frovatriptan showed favorable tolerability and sustained effect, with a significantly lower rate of relapse over 48 hours versus the other triptans. These findings were confirmed in a series of analyses of patient subsets from the three studies, including patients with menstrually related and oral contraceptive-induced migraine, hypertension, obesity, weekend migraine, as well as patients with migraine with aura. In all patient subsets analyzed, lower headache recurrence rates were observed versus the comparator triptans, indicating a more sustained pain-relieving effect on migraine symptoms. A further randomized, double-blind study demonstrated that frovatriptan given in combination with the fast-acting cyclooxygenase inhibitor dexketoprofen provided improved migraine pain-free activity at 2 hours, and gave more sustained pain-free activity at 24 hours, versus frovatriptan alone. These benefits were observed both when the combination was administered early (,1 hour after symptom onset) or late (.1 hour after onset). Different pharmacokinetic, but synergistic, properties between frovatriptan and dexketoprofen may make the combination of these agents particularly effective in migraine treatment, with rapid onset of action and sustained effect over 48 hours. These benefits, together with potential cost-effectiveness advantages versus other triptans could drive selection of the most appropriate treatment for acute migraine attacks. Read the review paper here: https://www.dovepress.com/spotlight-on-frovatriptan-a-review-of-its-efficacy-in-the-treatment-of-peer-reviewed-article-DDDT.
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http://www.dailyrx.com/migraine-medications-nsaids-triptans-and-acetaminophen-were-effective A new study from the American Headache Society found that triptans, dihydroergotamine, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and combination medications treated migraines most effectively.
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http://www.drjasonhall.com - DR. HALL HAS RELOCATED HIS PRACTICE TO KNOXVILLE. CONTACT HIS OFFICE AT: (865) 973-9500 - Meet Gail. Gail suffered from painful headaches for a long time. She'd wake up with pain in her neck and behind her eyes. Her usually solution was to take a half-a-pill of Maxalt, but sometimes she would not catch in time, leaving her bed-ridden for days on end. Insurance also didn't cover the amount of Maxalt she needed to stop the headaches. Then she went to Dr. Hall for headache surgery. Learn what happened next by watching Gail tell her story.
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Pronunciation flashcards for the medications in the print, e-book, and pharmacology audiobook Memorizing Pharmacology: A Relaxed Approach. More difficult medication names will have two pronunciation videos, a flashcard short version and an extended version breaking the pronunciation down syllable by syllable.
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