PULMONARY LYMPHANGIOLEIOMATOSIS PHLEGMTUBERCULOSIS / SARCOPTES - SPLIT 1.CERVICAL LYMPH NODE METASTASIS OF PAPILLARY THYROID CARCINOMA 2..POLYARTERITIS NODOSA 3..INTERCOURSE WITH YOUR MUCULENT BRAINS BY : SARCOPTES
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Right selective neck dissection levels IIa-Vb with Audio for metastatic Papillary thyroid cancer to multiple right lateral neck nodes following previous total thyroidectomy and central neck dissection. By Dr John M Chaplin, Head and Neck Surgeon, Auckland, New Zealand. Now with Audio commentary by Dr Chaplin
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Ethanol Ablation of Metastatic Papillary Thyroid Cancer in Neck Lymph Nodes
Просмотров: 75 Radiology Video
Papillary Thyroid Cancer | Symptoms, Treatments, and Prognosis for Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma, all about Papillary Thyroid Cancer. VISIT: ►►► http://Papillary-ThyroidCancer.com ◄◄◄ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eVM4Vs47IW0 Papillary thyroid cancer (also sometimes called papillary thyroid carcinoma) is the most common type of thyroid cancer. You may have even heard your doctor talk about metastatic papillary thyroid cancer ("metastatic" means that it has spread beyond your thyroid gland). This article will focus on papillary thyroid cancer basics, including papillary thyroid cancer symptoms, treatments, and prognosis Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common thyroid cancer. About 80% of all thyroid cancers cases are papillary thyroid cancer.1 What are some papillary thyroid cancer signs and symptoms? Papillary carcinoma typically arises as an irregular, solid or cystic mass that comes from otherwise normal thyroid tissue. This cancer has a high cure rate with 10-year survival rates for all patients with papillary thyroid cancer estimated at 80% to 90%. Cervical metastasis (spread to lymph nodes in the neck) are present in 50% of small papillary carcinomas and in more than 75% of the larger papillary thyroid carcinomas. The presence of lymph node metastasis in these cervical areas causes a higher recurrence rate but not a higher mortality rate. Distant metastasis is uncommon, but lung and bone are the most common sites if the papillary carcinoma does spread. Tumors that invade or extend beyond the thyroid capsule have a much worse prognosis because of a high local recurrence rate. But what do doctors look for to diagnose papillary thyroid cancer? Characteristics of Papillary Thyroid Cancer Peak onset ages are 30 to 50 years old. Papillary thyroid cancer is more common in females than in males by a 3:1 ratio. The prognosis directly related to tumor size. (Less than 1.5 cm [1/2 inch] is a good prognosis.) This cancer accounts for 85% of thyroid cancers due to radiation exposure. In more than 50% of cases, it spreads to lymph nodes of the neck. Distant spread (to lungs or bones) is uncommon. The overall cure rate is very high (near 100% for small lesions in young patients). Although survival following papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is high, a small but significant number of recurrences and deaths occur decades after diagnosis, a long-term study has found. The 3 most commonly cited studies on PTC have median follow-up times of 11, 15, and 15.7 years. In contrast, the new research reports on a median of 27 years of follow-up in a cohort of 269 PTC patients, said Raymon H. Grogan, MD, assistant professor of surgery and director of the endocrine surgery research program at the University of Chicago Medicine, Illinois. He presented the findings this week here at the American Association of Endocrine Surgeons 2013 Annual Meeting. Papillary thyroid cancer (as is the case with follicular thyroid cancer) typically occurs in the middle aged with a peak incidence in the 3rd and 4th decades. It is more common in women with a F:M ratio of 1:1.6 - 3:1 2. Papillary thyroid cancer, which is the most common type of thyroid cancer, makes up about 80% of all cases of thyroid cancer. It is one of the fastest growing cancer types with over 20,000 new cases a year. In fact, it is the 8th most common cancer among women overall and the most common cancer in women younger than 25. Most Patients Survive Papillary Thyroid Cancer Regardless of Treatment According to a study reported on in the May, 2010 issue of the Archives of Otolaryngology-Head & Neck Surgery, papillary thyroid cancer that has not spread outside the thyroid gland has a generally favorable outcome for patients, whether or not they receive treatment within a year of diagnosis. According to the study author, "...nearly every thyroid gland might be found to have a cancer if examined closely enough. The advent of ultrasonography and fine-needle aspiration biopsy has allowed many previously undetected cancers to be identified, changing the epidemiology of the disease. Over the past 30 years, the detected incidence of thyroid cancer has increased three-fold, the entire increase attributable to papillary thyroid cancer and 87% of the increase attributable to tumors measuring less than 2 centimeters." Although survival following papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) is high, a small but significant number of recurrences and deaths occur decades after diagnosis, a long-term study has found. "Papillary thyroid cancer in general has a very good prognosis... Also, papillary thyroid cancer rates have been rising steadily for several decades worldwide. The combination of these 2 factors means that more and more people will be living with [the diagnosis] for several decades. This is why we think our study is important," Dr. Grogan told Medscape Medical News. Papillary Thyroid Cancer http://www.youtube.com/PapillaryThyroidCanc . .
Просмотров: 15686 Papillary Thyroid Cancer
View the full version of this lecture and all of our educational lectures at www.sonoworld.com Summary: The speaker discusses the use of percutaneous ethanol ablation in patients with recurrent papillary thyroid cancer. Objectives: Upon completion of this educational activity the participant should be able to review patient selection for percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI), recognize techniques and complications of PEI and provide follow up screening in patients after PEI.
Просмотров: 37 SonoWorld
Thyroid cancer can be cured if the operation is correct for the type of cancer. In this video, Dr Gary Clayman shows a patient that needs all of the lymph nodes on the left side of the neck removed because many of these lymph nodes contain metastatic thyroid cancer. As described here: http://www.thyroidcancer.com/thyroid-cancer-surgery, it is important that each patient get the correct amount of surgery necessary to cure the thyroid cancer and if lymph nodes in the side of the neck contain cancer, an aggressive operation needs to be performed. But as you see here, the patient will not have a big hole in their neck from this operation! The scar will be barely noticeable even when this extensive operation is performed by an expert surgeon. You can read more about thyroid cancer and all forms of thyroid cancer surgery at: http://www.thyroidcancer.com
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spherical nodes with microcalcification and increased vascularity. see: http://www.ultrasound-images.com/thyroid-2/#metastases-to-lymph-nodes
Просмотров: 430 DR. JOE A
An educational video for young doctors and inquisite patients .This video shows how to identify and dissect important nerves and parathyroid glands during total thyroidectomy.This video details patients complaints and 1st postoperative day expe5rience following surgery. Note voice of patient in 1st post operative day.
Просмотров: 23 Dr. Santanu Bhattacharjee
Cervical lymph node metastases are common in papillary thyroid cancer. They should be diagnosed preoperatively in order to perform an optimal, radical and effective surgical procedure, offering the patient the best probability for permanent cure
Просмотров: 5 Γεώργιος Σακοράφας
Prof. Domenico Napolitano, Chief of Otorilaringology, Cardarelli Hospital, Napoli he neck dissection is a surgical procedure for control of neck lymph node metastasis. This can be done for clinically or radiologically evident lymph nodes or as part of curative surgery where risk of occult nodal metastasis is deemed sufficiently high. The aim of the procedure is to remove lymph nodes from the neck into which cancer cells may have migrated. Metastasis of tumours into the lymph nodes of the neck is one of the strongest prognostic indicators for head and neck cancer. The metastases may originate from tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the oral cavity, tongue, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx, as well as the thyroid, parotid and posterior scalp. Neck nodal metastasis can sometimes also originate from lung cancer or intra-abdominal malignancy. However, neck dissection is rarely performed for such purposes. Lymph nodes in a particular region are numerous and generally referred to in groups. It is impossible to dissect through all the soft tissue to remove individual lymph nodes. As such the neck dissection is the en-bloc resection of all soft tissue in the region including all the lymph nodes and structures passing through them. In the case of a neck dissection, this entails the resection of everything within the superficial layer of deep cervical fascia (also known as the investing layer of cervical fascia). Where deemed excessively morbid, the structures within are conserved. These include the carotid and in some instances the three structures - IJV, SCM and Accessory Nerve. Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center developed the lymph node regional definitions most widely used today. To describe the lymph nodes of the neck for neck dissection, the neck is divided into 6 areas called Levels. The levels are identified by Roman numeral, increasing towards the chest. A further Level VII to denote lymph node groups in the superior mediastinum is no longer used. Instead, lymph nodes in other non-neck regions are referred to by the name of their specific nodal groups. Region I: Submental and submandibular triangles. Ia is the submental triangle bound by the anterior bellies of the digastric and the mylohyoid. Ib is the triangle formed by the anterior and posterior bellies of the digastric and body of mandible. Region II, III, IV: nodes associated with the IJV; fibroadipose tissue located medial to the posterior border of SCM and lateral to the border of the sternohyoid. Region II: upper third including the upper jugular and jugulodigastric nodes and the upper posterior cervical nodes. Region bound by the digastric muscle superiorly and the hyoid bone (clinical landmark), or the carotid bifurcation (surgical landmark) inferiorly. IIa contains nodes in the region anterior to the spinal accessory nerve and IIb postero-superior to the nerve. Region III: middle third jugular nodes extending from the carotid bifurcation superiorly to the cricothyroid notch (clinical landmark), or inferior edge of cricoid cartilage (radiological landmark), or omohyoid muscle (surgical landmark). Region IV: lower jugular nodes extending from the omohyoid muscle superiorly to the clavicle inferiorly. Region V: posterior triangle group of lymph nodes located along the lower half of the spinal accessory nerve and the transverse cervical artery. The supraclavicular nodes are also included in this group. The posterior boundary is the anterior border of the trapezius muscle, the anterior boundary is the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, and the inferior boundary is the clavicle. Region VI: anterior compartment group comprises lymph nodes surrounding the midline visceral structures of the neck extending from the level of the hyoid bone superiorly to the suprasternal notch inferiorly. On each side, the lateral boundary is the medial border of the carotid sheath. Located within this compartment are the perithyroidal lymph nodes, paratracheal lymph nodes, lymph nodes along the recurrent laryngeal nerves, and precricoid lymph nodes.
Просмотров: 34283 VideoSurgery
Examination of the lymph nodes A thorough clinical examination should usually include both a systematic inspection and palpation of the clinically relevant lymph node stations. The most important stations are - the head and neck area - the axilla - and the inguinal area Consequently, the lymph nodes are usually examined from cranial to caudal. Around one third of all lymph nodes are located in the head and neck area, where they can be found superficially and are therefore easily palpable. The following lymph nodes should be included in every palpation: - suboccipital - retro- and preauricular - submandibular - submental - posterior triangle of the neck and those in the area of the internal jugular vein, which lie deep within the neck and may be palpated ventral or dorsal to the sternocleidomastoid muscle. Additionally, the supraclavicular lymph nodes should be palpated as well, since enlargement of these lymph nodes is often associated with malignancies. Abdominal tumors that metastasize via the lymphatic system, such as gastric cancer, will often result in an enlarged Virchow node in the left supraclavicular fossa. Carefully palpate the individual lymph node stations. To facilitate differentiation between lymph nodes and muscles, the area that is palpated should be as relaxed as possible. Every palpable lymph node is considered enlarged. If there is enlargement, pay attention to consistency, tenderness, mobility, the number of enlarged lymph nodes and any erythema in the affected area. Multiple, fused lymph nodes are referred to as conglomerates and are highly suspicious for malignancy. After palpating the head and neck, continue by examining the axillary lymph nodes, which can be divided into different groups as well. The pectoral or anterior group is located in the anterior axillary fold and is responsible for the majority of lymphatic drainage of the chest and chest wall. The subscapular or posterior lymph node group is palpable deep within the posterior axillary fold. It drains parts of the arms and the chest wall. The brachial or lateral lymph nodes drain the majority of the arms and can be palpated in the area of the proximal humerus. All of the lymph node groups just mentioned then drain into the central group, which is palpable at the base of the axilla. The subclavicular or apical group represents the last lymph node station before the lymphatic vessels drain into the venous system. This group should be examined together with the cervical or axillary lymph nodes. In this patient, the examiner starts by palpating the pectoral group, behind the lateral aspect of the pectoralis major muscle. Afterwards, he palpates the central group, followed by the posterior group in the area of the posterior axillary fold and the brachial group of the upper arm. Distinguishing between lymph nodes and surrounding muscles is best achieved when the arm is relaxed and lowered. Afterwards, the superficial lymph nodes of the inguinal area should be palpated. They are divided into a horizontal and a vertical group. The horizontal group lies below the inguinal ligament and can therefore be palpated parallel to its course. This group is responsible for draining parts of the external genitalia, trunk and lower back. The vertical group is located adjacent to the great proximal saphenous vein and drains lymphatic fluid from the lower extremity. Examination of the inguinal lymph nodes is best performed with the patient lying down. As a lymphatic organ, the spleen should always be part of the lymph node assessment since splenomegaly can hint at a systemic inflammatory or malignant illness. The spleen is generally not palpable in healthy adults. A pathologically enlarged spleen is palpated under the left costal margin during inspiration as the inferior edge descends to the examiner’s fingertips.If an enlarged spleen is already suspected, palpation should begin further down. The examination may be facilitated by gently lifting the left flank of the patient ventrally.
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Besides demonstrating the operative steps of bilateral selective neck dissection along with a total thyroidectomy this operative video highlights careful planning of the incisions particularly in the setting of a previous cervical node biopsy, strict adherence to fascial planes of neck dissection to avoid injury to brachial plexus and the phrenic nerve, preservation of sternomastoid muscle, IJV and accessory nerve, wide exposure of the superior pole of the thyroid to expose the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve capsular dissection of the thyroid and repair of thoracic duct injury.
Просмотров: 23149 Rajnish Talwar
Cervical lymph node metastases are very common in papillary thyroid cancer at the time of diagnosis. What's optimal surgical strategy and management options in these patients?
Просмотров: 14 Γεώργιος Σακοράφας
Complete case history on http://www.thyrosite.com/thyroid/1277/index.htm
Просмотров: 537 Tamas Solymosi
Part I of a Modified Radical Neck Dissection for metastatic oropharyngeal cancer to multiple neck lymph nodes using a plasma blade. Performed by Dr John Chaplin, Head and Neck Surgeon, Auckland, New Zealand. Now with audio commentary by Dr Chaplin. Replaces the previous video that had no audio.
Просмотров: 76300 headnnecksurgery
This is a video on the most common cancers that originate in the thyroid tissue. I created this presentation with Google Slides. Image were created or taken from Wikimedia Commons I created this video with the YouTube Video Editor. ADDITIONAL TAGS: Thyroid cancers The most common carcinomas that originate in the thyroid tissue Epi: Frequency of 80 percent (most common); good prognosis (10 year survival 95%); F:M 3:1; peak incidence in 30s to 50s Gross: irregular contours, no capsule around it Histo: nuclear clearing (nuclei appear empty - â€œOrphan Annie eyeâ€), nuclear grooves, intranuclear pseudoinclusions, psammoma bodies (calcifications) , reduced colloid, crowded cells, papillary architecture (sometimes present) Derived from follicular cells Increased risk: mutations (RET and BRAF), radiation exposure as child Spread: often by lymphatic invasion to cervical nodes, neck; slow growth Secretes thyroglobulin; takes up radioiodine Treat: lobectomy (maybe total thyroidectomy with lymph node removal) High risk pts get radioiodine tx TSH suppression with thyroid hormone replacement Epi: Frequency of 10 percent; more aggressive than papillary with early metastases; also F:M 3:1; peak in 40s to 60s Histo: monotonous/uniform population, overlapping follicular cells, microacinar formation, reduced colloid, might contain Hurthle cells Derived from follicular cells Increased risk: mutations in RAS Spread: often by vascular invasion; locally invasive, invades thyroid capsule Distal spread more common than papillary Invades blood vessels and invades through the capsule Differentiate from follicular adenoma: Secretes thyroglobulin; takes up radioiodine (except Hurthle cells) Same treatment: lobectomy (maybe total thyroidectomy with lymph node removal) High risk pts get radioiodine tx TSH suppression with thyroid hormone replacement Epi: Frequency of 5%; more aggressive than follicular with early metastases; Sporadic (80%) â†’ F:M 3:2, peak in 40s to 60s Familial (20%) â†’ F:M 1:1, peak onset at early age Histo: neuroendocrine appearance, â€˜packetsâ€™ of uniform cells; stroma made of amyloid (stains w Congo red) Derived from parafollicular cells (C (clear) cells); produces calcitonin Increased risk: family with MEN 2A and 2B (association), mutation in RET (proto-oncogene) Spread: early metastases Does not secrete thyroglobulin; does not take up radioiodine Same treatment: lobectomy (maybe total thyroidectomy w lymph node removal) Thyroid hormone replacement for normal TSH (no TSH suppression) Anaplastic carcinoma Left of image is amyloid, right of image is near normal thyroid follicles Anaplastic carcinoma AKA undifferentiated carcinoma (because itâ€™s poorly differentiated) Epi: Frequency of 3 percent; very aggressive, poor prognosis, most deadly; M:F 2:1, peak in 60s to 80s Histo: several variants, but all high grade Spread: infiltrative into local structures, soft tissue of neck; widespread metastases, early mortality Does not take up radioiodine Papillary carcinoma Follicular carcinoma Medullary carcinoma Anaplastic carcinoma
Просмотров: 15704 MedLecturesMadeEasy
Of the 800 lymph nodes in human body, 300 are neck. It is done in the hospital. The lymph nodes beneath and of the papillary thyroid cancer. Swollen lymph nodes pain in neck, groin, armpit, ear, causes how many are the neck? Quora. Mysticdoc yes, this is correct. Metastatic lymph nodes are those that have cancer cells in them (spread from a primary tumor somewhere else). Examining your the nodes around collarbone and neck (supraclavicular, infraclavicular, cervical nodes) are examined manually (by hand) there many different types of cancer that can grow anywhere in body. Memorial sloan kettering. That combines many x ray images with the aid of a computer to generate cross sectional and three dimensional 800 lymph nodes in human body, 300 are neck. Sometimes, your surgeon can tell which. For instance, ear pain, fever, and enlarged lymph nodes near your are clues that you may have an infection or cold. If a person has symptoms of cold or other minor infection for which they may not take antibiotics, it takes about two weeks the nodes to return normal size example, lymph node in underarm (axilla) can compress blood vessels and nerves supplying arm. They function as part of the immune system and harbour lymphocytes that act against infections or foreign bodies. Lymph nodes are small bean shaped glands that we have throughout our bodies including the head and neck area. The type you will have depends on where the cancer is, whether it has spread to your lymph nodes, and other structures in neck. The amount of tissue and the number lymph nodes that are removed depend on how far to check. About your neck dissection surgery. Lymph nodes cancer staging & treatment options lymph node removal news medical. However when affected by an infection or cancer they may get bigger at the neck 14 feb 2017 if you have invasive breast cancer, your surgeon will probably remove some of lymph nodes under arm during lumpectomy mastectomy. Mysticdoc there can be some variability 29 aug 2012 for example, if a patient has small cancer completely removed and all of the nodes are free cancer, might not any need further treatment anatomists tell us that 100 to 200 lymph in neck, so even with more comprehensive neck dissection, we removing only how do you know have swollen nodes? The ones most frequently enlarged or found (a chain is located front sides many people acute hiv infection symptoms signs until they infected virus cervical. Depending on the cause of your swollen lymph nodes, other signs and symptoms you might have include nodes self care at home. Lymph node removal for invasive breast cancer metastatic lymph nodes head and neck info teens. They are often the first place cancer cells spread to when they break away from a 29 aug 2017. If nearby or distant nodes show cancer, the n is assigned a number (such as 1, 2 3), depending on how many are affected, much cancer in them, large they are, and 27 jun 2012 lymph filters located at intervals between channels. Normally the
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If performing the FNA from the lymph node suspected the metastasis of papillary thyroid carcinoma, we rinse the needle with 5mL saline for measuring thyroglobulin value. 甲状腺乳頭癌の転移が疑われるリンパ節から穿刺吸引細胞診を行う場合、穿刺針を5mLの生理食塩水で洗浄し、サイログロブリン値を測定します。 http://suzuki012.wixsite.com/kobethyroid/movie
Просмотров: 401 thyroidist
What is NECK DISSECTION? What does NECK DISSECTION mean? NECK DISSECTION meaning - NECK DISSECTION definition - NECK DISSECTION explanation. Source: Wikipedia.org article, adapted under https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ license. SUBSCRIBE to our Google Earth flights channel - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UC6UuCPh7GrXznZi0Hz2YQnQ The neck dissection is a surgical procedure for control of neck lymph node metastasis. This can be done for clinically or radiologically evident lymph nodes or as part of curative surgery where risk of occult nodal metastasis is deemed sufficiently high. The aim of the procedure is to remove lymph nodes from the neck into which cancer cells may have migrated. Metastasis of tumours into the lymph nodes of the neck is one of the strongest prognostic indicators for head and neck cancer. The metastases may originate from tumours of the upper aerodigestive tract, including the oral cavity, tongue, nasopharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx, and larynx, as well as the thyroid, parotid and posterior scalp. Neck nodal metastasis can sometimes also originate from lung cancer or intra-abdominal malignancy. However, neck dissection is rarely performed for such purposes. Lymph nodes in a particular region are numerous and generally referred to in groups. It is impossible to dissect through all the soft tissue to remove individual lymph nodes. As such the neck dissection is the en-bloc resection of all soft tissue in the region including all the lymph nodes and structures passing through them. In the case of a neck dissection, this entails the resection of everything within the superficial layer of deep cervical fascia (also known as the investing layer of cervical fascia). Where deemed excessively morbid, the structures within are conserved. These include the carotid and in some instances the three structures - IJV, SCM and Accessory Nerve.
Просмотров: 811 The Audiopedia
I've recently been diagnosed with papillary thyroid carcinoma. This video is my first. I talk about what my videos will be about and some initial thoughts on thyroid cancer diagnosis. Vlog of particular interest to people worrying about effects of thyroid cancer treatment on voice, mood, and energy.
Просмотров: 498 Thyroid Cancer Voice
Ultrasound, neck, thyroid, thyroidectomy, recurrence, papillary and medullary thyroid carcinoma, al saeda company, Dr. Ahmed D. Abdulwahab. Radiology.
Просмотров: 125 Dr. Ahmed D. Abdulwahab
Operated case of a left supraclavicular solitary Lymph node excisional biopsy. Hystopathology reported metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid.Morphological look of a metastatic lymphnode is totally different from a normal one.
Просмотров: 1138 Varun Raju
A Discussion of Lymph Node Evaluation in the Setting of Thyroid Cancer: Pre- and Post-Operative Nodal Mapping and Assessment. Nayana Patel, M.D., Radiologist
Просмотров: 2557 ThyCa: Thyroid Cancer Survivors' Association, Inc.
John D. Casler, M.D., an otolaryngologist at Mayo Clinic in Florida, explains the procedure to remove lymph nodes that are involved or potentially involved with cancer. Approximately one-third of the lymph nodes in our body are contained in the neck with many important structures found within or within close proximity. Your surgeon will advise you as to the extent of your surgery, hospitalization, recovery time and any additional treatment(s) required since these factors vary significantly from patient to patient.
Просмотров: 7886 Mayo Clinic
Thyroid Nodules and Current Guidelines. Kristin McKinney, M.D., Radiologist
Просмотров: 14901 ThyCa: Thyroid Cancer Survivors' Association, Inc.
Complete case history on http://www.thyrosite.com/thyroid/810/index.htm
Просмотров: 48 Tamas Solymosi
Medicine by Alexandros G. Sfakianakis,Anapafseos 5 Agios Nikolaos 72100 Crete Greece,00306932607174,00302841026182,firstname.lastname@example.org Thyroid Cancer Epidemiology Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine cancer and the ninth most common cancer overall. The American Cancer Society estimates that about 64,300 new cases of thyroid cancer will be diagnosed in the United States in 2016 (49,350 in women and 14,950 in men). Thyroid cancer represents 3.8% of the new cancer cases. Although most cancers are either stable or declining in incidence, the incidence of thyroid cancer continues to increase. Rates for new thyroid cancer cases have been rising on average 5.5% each year over the last 10 years. Death rates have been rising on average by 0.8% each year from 2002 through 2011. Despite standard treatment, an estimated 1,980 deaths from thyroid cancer (1,070 women, 910 men) will occur in 2016. The prevalence rate for occult thyroid cancers found at autopsy is 5% to 10%, except in Japan and Hawaii, where the rate can be as high as 28%. Autopsy rates do not correlate with clinical incidence. Most patients are between the ages of 45 and 64 years at the time of thyroid carcinoma diagnosis. Median age at diagnosis is 50 years. About 2% of thyroid cancers occur in children and teenagers. Women are affected more often than men (3:1 ratio) and are usually diagnosed at a younger age. The most common stage at diagnosis is localized disease (confined to the thyroid) in 68% of cases, followed by regional disease (spread to regional lymph nodes) in 26% of cases, distant metastases in 4%, and unknown in 2% of patients. The 5-year survival for patients with localized thyroid cancer is 99.9%. The overall survival depends on stage; age; and in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, the ability of the tumor to take up radioactive iodine (RAI). The 10-year overall survival is significantly reduced to 10% in patients who are older, have distant metastases (macronodular lung metastases or bone metastases), and are RAI non-avid. The prevalence of thyroid nodules in the general population is 4% to 7%, with nodules more common in females than in males. The prevalence of thyroid cancer in a solitary nodule or in multinodular thyroid glands is 10% to 20%; this increases with irradiation of the neck in children and older men (see section on “Etiology and risk factors“). Tumor Types Thyroid cancer is classified into four main types according to its morphology and biologic characteristics. Papillary and follicular carcinomas, also known as differentiated thyroid cancers, account for more than 90% of thyroid malignancies and constitute approximately 0.8% of all human malignancies. Medullary thyroid cancers represent 4% of all thyroid carcinomas. About 75% of patients with medullary cancer have a sporadic form of the disease; the remaining 25% have inherited disease. Anaplastic carcinoma represents less than 2% of all thyroid carcinomas. Papillary thyroid carcinoma Papillary thyroid carcinoma is the most common subtype, and it typically has an excellent prognosis. Most papillary carcinomas contain varying amounts of follicular tissue, since they derive from thyroid follicular cells. When the predominant histology is papillary, the tumor is considered to be a papillary carcinoma. Because the mixed papillary-follicular variant tends to behave like a pure papillary cancer, it is treated in the same manner and has a similar prognosis. Papillary thyroid carcinomas are unilateral in most cases, but they also can be multifocal. They vary in size from microscopic to large cancers that may invade beyond the thyroid tissue and infiltrate into contiguous structures. Papillary tumors tend to invade the lymphatics, but vascular invasion (and hematogenous spread) is uncommon. Up to 40% of adults with papillary thyroid cancer may present with regional lymph node metastases, usually ipsilateral. Distant metastases occur, in decreasing order of frequency, in the lungs, bones, and other soft tissues. Older patients have a higher risk of locally invasive tumors and of distant metastases. Children may present with a solitary thyroid nodule, but cervical node involvement is common in this age group; up to 10% of children and adolescents may have lung involvement at the time of diagnosis. Follicular thyroid carcinoma Follicular thyroid carcinoma is less common than papillary thyroid cancer, occurs in older age groups, and has a slightly worse prognosis. Follicular thyroid cancer can metastasize to the lungs and bones, often retaining the ability to accumulate RAI (which can be used for therapy). Metastases may be appreciated many years after the initial diagnosis. Follicular thyroid carcinoma, although frequently encapsulated, commonly exhibits microscopic vascular and capsular invasion. Microscopically, the nuclei tend to be large and have atypical mitotic figures. There i
Просмотров: 6 Alexandros G. Sfakianakis
Role of Neck Sonography After Total Thyroidectomy for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer
Просмотров: 302 Radiology Video
Video from I love my mother
Просмотров: 129 Dr.Nurul Huda Nayeem
Complete case history on http://www.thyrosite.com/thyroid/1160/index.htm
Просмотров: 334 Tamas Solymosi
Complete case history on http://www.thyrosite.com/thyroid/154/index.htm
Просмотров: 130 Tamas Solymosi
Kiren was diagnosed by doctors with Stage 4 Thyroid Cancer in April 2018, she had been through 4 major surgeries to remove whole thyroid, lymph nodes and lung tumour between Oct 2017 and April 2018. Doctors wrote letters stating she is suffering from Stage 4 Thyroid cancer and has limited time alive. Kiren gives her last words and wishes.
Просмотров: 294 Kiren Pak
Просмотров: 210 Educational Radiologyy Channel ERC
8th Euro Global Summit on Cancer Therapy November 03-05, 2015 Valencia, Spain Title: Dissection of Level I Cervical Lymph Nodes in Patients with Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma Click here for Abstract and Biography: http://cancer.global-summit.com/europe/speaker/2015/mahmoud-f-sakr-university-of-alexandria-egypt-159846744 OMICS International: http://conferenceseries.com/ OMICS open access Journals: http://omicsonline.org Global Medical Conferences: http://conferenceseries.com Global Pharmaceutical Conferences: http://pharmaceuticalconferences.com Global Cancer Conferences: http://cancersummit.org Global Diabetes Conferences: http://diabetesexpo.com Global Dental Conferences: http://dentalcongress.com Global Nursing Conferences: http://nursingconference.com
Просмотров: 6 euro global summit on canser therapy
These images show a large heterogeneously enhancing mass which appears to originate from the right thyroid lobe with areas of central hypodensity likely reflecting necrosis. The mass extends from the level of the hyoid to the upper mediastinum, invades the right neck anterior strap musculature, results in significant leftward deviation of the trachea, and markedly compresses the right internal jugular vein. There is no cervical lymphadenopathy or evidence of osseous or cartilage invasion. The differential diagnosis includes anaplastic thyroid cancer, thyroid medullary carcinoma, and multinodular goiter. The presence of muscular invasion and necrosis in an older male makes anaplastic thyroid cancer the most likely diagnosis. This was confirmed on pathology. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is very aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis and mean survival of six months. Treatment is usually palliative, but if caught early, aggressive treatment may be pursued with surgery and/or chemoradiotherapy. DB NMR 70
Просмотров: 498 CTisus