Fluorine is a chemical element with the symbol F and atomic number 9. It is the lightest halogen and exists as a highly toxic pale yellow diatomic gas at standard conditions. As the most electronegative element, it is extremely reactive: almost all other elements, including some noble gases, form compounds with fluorine. Among the elements, fluorine ranks 24th in universal abundance and 13th in terrestrial abundance. Fluorite, the primary mineral source of fluorine, was first described in 1529; as it was added to metal ores to lower their melting points for smelting, the Latin verb fluo meaning "flow" became associated with it. Proposed as an element in 1810, fluorine proved difficult and dangerous to separate from its compounds, and several early experimenters died or sustained injuries from their attempts. Only in 1886 did French chemist Henri Moissan isolate elemental fluorine using low-temperature electrolysis, a process still employed for modern production. Industrial synthesis of fluorine gas for uranium enrichment, its largest application, began during the Manhattan Project in World War II. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Dose Modifications Based on Pharmacogenetics Research - Module 7, Session 3 with Dr. Howard McLeod This is Module 7, Session 3, of the NIH Clinical Center's "Principles of Clinical Pharmacology" course. The course is a lecture series covering the fundamentals of clinical pharmacology as a translational scientific discipline focused on rational drug development and utilization in therapeutics. If you have any questions or need additional information regarding the Principles of Clinical Pharmacology course, please email the course coordinator at: firstname.lastname@example.org.
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