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Samarium - A Metal Which HELPS HEAL CANCER!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today I want to tell you about the metal samarium Samarium is a rare earth so-called f-metal, it is located in the lanthanide portion of the periodic table of chemical elements. Samarium got its name from the Samarskite mineral from which samarium itself is obtained, and the mineral itself was named in honor of the Russian mining engineer Vasily Samarskiy-Bykhovets. In appearance, metal samarium looks shiny, with a yellowish tinge due to the formation of samarium monoxide on air. Also, pieces of samarium have an extremely pronounced crystalline structure, which is also called a metal’s dendrites. In air, samarium oxidizes quickly, covering itself with a layer of oxide, that is why it is best to be stored in an inert atmosphere in a glass ampoule. If a piece of samarium is to be thrown into hydrochloric acid, it will start actively dissolving in it, forming a samarium chloride of yellow color. The activity of samarium is comparable to its neighbors - neodymium and praseodymium. Interestingly enough, the salts of samarium have a weak luminescence, meaning they glow dimly with a red-orange light under the ultraviolet rays. Also, the samarium chloride solution slightly absorbs ultraviolet radiation, this can be seen if you pass a ray of the ultraviolet laser through a solution of samarium chloride. The standing next to it phosphor solution begins to glow dimmer after passing through the laser beam through the solution. When alkali is added to the solution of samarium chloride, the white samarium hydroxide precipitates, which then can be dissolved in trilon b, the descaling agent for the kettles. In the acetic acid, samarium dissolves in the same way as neodymium, forming samarium acetate, which is immediately decomposed because of the hydrolysis in water. Metal samarium is a paramagnetic substance, meaning it is weakly attracted to a powerful neodymium magnet. Although, if samarium is alloyed with the metal cobalt, then from such an alloy it is possible to make some very good and rather powerful samarium-cobalt magnets. The magnetic saturation or the magnetic force of these magnets is higher than that of ferrite magnets, but lower than that of neodymium magnets. However, the operating temperature of such magnets sets records among the magnets - this magnet won’t degauss even at 500 degrees Celsius, when neodymium can degauss at 55 degrees. Such magnets are used in the top-end electric motors, as well as in jet engines, where the operating temperature is quite high. In air, a small piece of samarium does not burn from the burner due to the high melting point, although the samarium powder will light up and burn quite well. When samarium burns in air, samarium oxide is formed, which is added to the glass used for lasers to absorb excess ultraviolet as well as infrared radiation. Samarium oxide itself under the ultraviolet light glows with a slight yellow color. Today samarium compounds have many uses, for example, the squares drug, which is a samarium complex, and is used to treat cancer tumors, samarium compounds are used as Lewis acids in organic synthesis. Also, the isotope of samarium, samarium 149, is an excellent neutron absorber, which creates a problem in the nuclear industry. The reason being is that during the decay of nuclear fuel, the formed samarium 149 absorbs the slow neutrons, which are quite necessary for the normal operation of the reactor. Samarium 149, along with the other isotopes of gadolinium, are called reactor poison. Also, samarium monosulfide has an extremely high ability to convert temperature difference into electrical energy, being similar to Peltier elements. Now you've learned a little bit more about one of the metals, if you want the series with the elements to continue, please put a like and subscribe to my channel to find out a lot more of new and interesting.
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Lanthanum  - A metal is Used To Make OPTICAL FIBER!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today I will continue the series of videos about the lanthanide metals and will also talk about such metal as Lanthanum. Lanthanum is located at the beginning of the lanthanide series of metals, and from this metal the name was derived for the whole series of metals with similar properties, the so-called f-metals. Btw actually, the periodic system of chemical elements should look 2 times longer than it currently is and if it was shown in its full length it would appear more like this. However, as it turns out that is not the most compact way of showcasing elements, so the lanthanides and actinides were moved a bit down. Lanthanum is quite an active metal, and as a result it is stored in kerosene or mineral oil. In air, lanthanum oxidizes and covers itself with a layer of oxide. This metal is quite expensive, 1 gram costing $10. By its hardness lanthanum resembles zinc, it is also quite durable. From the chemical viewpoint lanthanum is second among lanthanides based on its activity, just after europium, it reacts with water rather slowly, but in acetic acid it begins to react eagerly forming hydrogen and a slurry of lanthanum hydroxide. By adding alkali an interesting gelatinous compound is produced, the polyhydroxy lanthanum, which won’t decompose being in a temperature lower than 800 degrees Celsius, but it does dissolve in hydrochloric acid. From these compounds a porous ceramic can be created, which has a chance in the future to become a good catalyst in organic chemistry. Lanthanum reacts very rapidly with hydrochloric acid forming a transparent lanthanum chloride. This compound is sometimes used in aquariums to prevent the growth of algae. When pouring the sodium hydroxide alkali to lanthanum chloride, a lanthanum hydroxide is formed, from which by using heating a lanthanum oxide can be obtained. This oxide is used for the manufacture of optical glass with a low refractive index. Some of the lanthanum chemical properties are similar to calcium. Lanthanum hydroxide can dissolve in the descaling agent for kettles that contains Trilon-B which is a good complexing agent. If you heat lanthanum by using a gas burner it will get covered with a layer of lanthanum oxide, however won’t even burn when ignited on wood. However, if being part of ferrocerium, which is used for creating sparks in lighters, lanthanum is very useful for firing up sparks created by the friction on a solid object. Ferrocerium contains about 25% of lanthanum. Today the most widespread use of lanthanum is the use of its compounds as the anode in rechargeable nickel-metal hydride batteries. For example, for the creation of a Toyota hybrid car that uses such batteries, 10 to 15 kg of lanthanum are required. Also, lanthanum sponges are used for hydrogen storage, and lanthanum fluoride is added to the ZBLAN glass that is used for making fiber for the transmission of information. Who knows, it may be because of lanthanum that you are currently enjoying a high speed broadband at your house. Now you know a little bit more about one of the other metals, subscribe to my channel and add likes to discover much more of new and interesting!
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Caesium chloride
 
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Caesium chloride or cesium chloride, is the inorganic compound with the formula CsCl. This colorless solid is an important source of caesium ions in a variety of applications. Its crystal structure forms a major structural type where each caesium ion is coordinated by 8 chlorine ions. Caesium chloride crystals are thermally stable, but easily dissolve in water and concentrated hydrochloric acid, and therefore gradually disintegrate in the ambient conditions due to moisture. Caesium chloride occurs naturally in mineral waters and as an impurity in carnallite, sylvite and kainite. Less than 20 tonnes of CsCl is produced annually worldwide, mostly from a caesium-bearing mineral pollucite. Caesium chloride is widely used in isopycnic centrifugation for separating various types of DNA. It is a reagent in analytical chemistry, where it is used to identify ions by the color and morphology of the precipitate. When enriched in radioisotopes, such as 137CsCl or 131CsCl, caesium chloride is used in nuclear medicine applications such as treatment of cancer and diagnosis of myocardial infarction. Another form of cancer treatment was studied using conventional non-radioactive CsCl. Whereas conventional caesium chloride has a rather low toxicity to humans and animals, the radioactive form easily contaminates the environment due to the high solubility of CsCl in water. Spread of 137CsCl powder from a 93-gram container in 1987 in Goiânia, Brazil, resulted in one of the worst-ever radiation spill accidents killing four and directly affecting more than 100,000 people. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
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Neodymium  - A METAL Is Used to Make MAGNETS!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ ATTENTION! This video shows dangerous experiments! Do not repeatthe experiments shown in this VIDEO! So, today I want to tell you about the metal neodymium. It is one of the metals of the lanthanides, and is located at the bottom of the periodic table of chemical elements. Neodymium is a fairly active metal which is stored in glass ampoules or in an inert atmosphere for corrosion protection. In air it will oxidize and cover itself with a layer of oxide. Immediately from the ampoule neodymium can be seen as a shiny metal with a distinct crystal structure. Neodymium is a relatively hard metal, its hardness resembles iron. I even broke the pliers trying to bite off the piece of neodymium in half. Also, while experimenting with neodymium I noticed that when you tap on it, the metal produces a ringing sound, just like bronze. This is telling us of the elasticity of the metal. Neodymium dissolves well in hydrochloric acid, and the reaction goes very rapidly. During this reaction it produces hydrogen and neodymium chloride, which is of pink color like the many of the compounds of neodymium. The solution of neodymium chloride has one amazing property. Its color can be different depending on the lighting. When under the illumination of a led lamp the solution looks pink, but under the light of a fluorescent lamp the solution becomes yellow. This effect is caused due to the presence of f-electrons in the outer electron layer of the neodymium, the light absorption spectrum of the compounds of neodymium has very sharp bands caused by the so-called forbidden f-f transitions within the metal’s atom. If I got anything wrong here please do correct me in the comments as I'm not very good in quantum physics. This property of the compounds of neodymium is used for the production of the so-called neodymium glass which used in photography as a filter of yellow light. Also this glass is used in incandescent bulbs to create a more white light. If you add sodium hydroxide or lye to the neodymium chloride, the precipitate of neodymium hydroxide is then produced, which, like all the neodymium compounds, changes its color depending on the lighting. From this compound it is possible to make neodymium oxide by using heating, which is added to neodymium glass for the manufacture of heavy-duty lasers. These lasers are used to create fusion synthesis, they have an extraordinary power. The neodymium hydroxide, similar to the hydroxide of lanthanum, can be dissolved in trilone b that’s used to remove limescale in kettles. It looks very nice if we look at it with a macro. Neodymium can also react with acetic acid, by dissolving in it. As with lanthanum, in this reaction a suspension of neodymium hydroxide is formed. If you heat the neodymium with a gas burner, it will not light up due to its high melting point. However, the neodymium powder burns perfectly on air. Metallic neodymium is attracted to a magnet quite weakly and is paramagnetic, meaning it does not magnetize. However, in combination with iron and boron, neodymium obtains an incredibly high ability to magnetize, so called magnetic saturation. Using this property of the compound of neodymium-iron-boron it is used for the manufacture of the most powerful to date neodymium magnets. These magnets are now used everywhere, from hard drives to expensive speakers. Also, I would like to note that these magnets are very fragile. The neodymium-iron-boron compound resembles ceramic, so these magnets are very easy to break or crack. On the outside these magnets are coated using nickel for protection from corrosion.
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Promethium Properties & Uses | Where Promethium Pm Element is Found
 
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Promethium is a radioactive metal with the chemical symbol Pm, belonging to the family of lanthanides as it does not exist naturally in the earth’s crust. It has 29 isotopes with mass numbers ranging from 130 to 158 of which the most stable one is promethium-145 having a half-life of 17.7 years. Atomic number 61 Atomic mass 145 Melting point 1042°C, 1908°F, 1315 K Boiling point 3000°C, 5432°F, 3273 K Group Lanthanides Period 6 Block f The existence of promethium was predicted by Bohuslav Brauner, a Czech chemist, in 1902. Several groups claimed to have produced the element, but they could not confirm their discoveries because of the difficulty of separating promethium from other elements. Proof of the existence of promethium was obtained by Jacob A. Marinsky, Lawrence E. Glendenin and Charles D. Coryell in 1945. The beta particles generated as a result of radioactive decay of promethium are used to make phosphor give off light that when converted into electricity by a solar cell provides power to radios, pacemakers, and guided missiles. * Promethium is useful as a beta source for thickness gauges. * Used in atomic batteries for spacecraft and guided missiles where other kinds of batteries would be too heavy or large to use. * Promethium(III) chloride (PmCl3) mixed with zinc sulfide (ZnS) was used for a while as luminous paint for watches after radium was discontinued. * Promethium was once used in pacemaker battery * Used as a starter switch in energy-efficient compact fluorescent lamps.
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Scandium - A Metal that Produces STRANGE SOUNDS!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So today I will tell you about such metal as scandium. Scandium is a rare earth metal that is located in the 3rd group of the periodic table of chemical elements. You can find about 10 grams of scandium per ton in the earth’s crust, and the richest in scandium rocks are found in Norway and Madagascar. In appearance, scandium is a shiny metal with a yellowish tint due to the scandium oxide layer covering the metal. Because of its rarity and high chemical activity, scandium has a very high price to it. This piece of scandium, weighing 1.3 grams, costs about $40. Its density is 2.98 g / cm3, only by 10% more than that of aluminum. However, the melting point of scandium is much higher (1541 °C. Interestingly enough, scandium chips in a jar when shaked produce a very interesting sound. It is quite resonant, I can assume that this is due to the lightness and hardness of scandium. By its chemical properties, scandium resembles aluminum and lanthanides. Chips of scandium burn well in the air, and during the combustion you can hear this interesting raspy sound. From the heat of the reaction the produced scandium oxide melts and forms into a ball. If you try to rub scandium into a file, you will not see scandium powder spontaneously igniting in the air. Scandium reacts well with acids, such as the hydrochloric acid. In this reaction scandium chloride is produced, in many compounds scandium has the oxidation state of +3. Besides acids, scandium can also react with alkali to form skandate - the complex compounds of scandium. By this characteristic scandium is quite similar to aluminum, it has the ability to react with acids and alkalis, which means it’s amphoteric. Scandium finds many uses in the world. Scandium is often used as a dopant for the aluminum alloys, even a simple addition of 0.4% scandium increases the strength of the alloy by 30%. Expensive bicycles are made from this alloy. Scandium iodide is added to mercury gas lamps that produce very authentic looking artificial light similar to the sunlight. In the nuclear industry hydride and deuteride scandium are used for them being excellent neutron moderators. Also scandium compound are used for the creation of luminophores in microelectronics and in the production of solar batteries. Scandium does not have any biological role. Now you know a little bit more about one of the other metals, if you want the series of the elements to continue please "Like" this video and subscribe to my channel to see many more of the new and interesting. Thank you for watching.
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Beryllium - A LIGHT Metal that REFLECTS NEUTRONS!
 
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Mel Science chemical sets: https://goo.gl/SxwFlQ Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So today I will tell you about such metal as beryllium. Beryllium is located in the second group of the periodic table, above magnesium. In nature you can find beryllium as part of emeralds, i.e. beryllium silicate. Beryllium has a very low density, but at the same time high hardness, it is a very toxic metal, so it is best to be stored in glass ampoules. Beryllium is a very rare element, and has a fairly high price for itself. A gram of beryllium costs about $15, the metal is obtained by recovering the beryllium fluoride with magnesium. Externally beryllium looks like a shiny gray metal with a distinct crystalline structure. To show you some of the chemical properties of beryllium, I'll break a vial containing this metal. Beryl crystals are so fragile that even in the vial they had to crumble into many pieces. So to start, let's see how beryllium reacts with an alkali - sodium hydroxide. The reaction of beryllium with the aqueous alkaline solution is accompanied by the release of hydrogen and the formation of hydroxyberryliate, as you can see the reaction progresses slowly. In the hydrochloric acid beryllium actively dissolves to form chloride beryllium and hydrogen. By the way, beryllium compounds have a sweet taste, however I will not check it as beryllium salts are very toxic. I have many tables but only one life. With regards to the chemical properties, beryllium resembles aluminum, if you try to set fire to a piece of beryllium, it will not burn due to the formation of a solid oxide film on the surface of the metal, also this metal has a fairly high melting point. Beryllium is mainly used as a dopant to the various alloys. Beryllium additive greatly enhances the hardness and strength of the alloys and the corrosion resistance of surfaces for items made from these alloys. In addition, beryllium bronze does not sparkle when being hit against a stone or metal. One of the alloys, by the way, has its own name - randol. Due to its similarity to gold, randol is called "Gypsy gold" Beryllium absorbs X-rays poorly, and that’s the reason why the windows of X-ray tubes are made from it. In nuclear reactors beryllium is used for making neutron reflectors, they are used as a neutron moderator. Beryllium oxide is the most heat-conducting of all oxides, its thermal conductivity at room temperature is higher than that of most metals and nearly all non-metals. It serves as a high-temperature high-heat-insulating and refractory material for laboratory crucibles and in other special cases. Now you know a little bit more about one of the other metals, if you want the series of the elements to continue please "Like" this video and subscribe to my channel to see many more new and interesting. Thank you for watching.
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Barium  - A Metal From The VACUUM TUBE!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So, today I will tell you about such metal as barium. Barium is the most active of the alkaline earth metals, it is located near the bottom of the 2nd group in the table of chemical elements. Like many active metals, to protect it from corrosion, barium is stored in either mineral oil or kerosene. Externally, barium looks like a gray metal due to the oxide layer covering it. The hardness of barium resembles lead, you can cut a piece of barium with a pair of pliers. On the cut you can observe that the shiny metal surface quickly oxidizes in air and tarnishes. Since barium is the most active of the alkaline earth metals, it reacts very actively with ethyl alcohol forming ethanolate barium and hydrogen. Though with water barium reacts even more vigorously, releasing large quantities of hydrogen, also forming, during this reaction with water, hydroxide of barium. Barium hydroxide is only slightly soluble in water, and hence the solution becomes turbid.If we add the thymolphtalein indicator into the glass with barium hydroxide, the solution will become blue due to the alkaline environment within the solution. By the way, soluble compounds of barium are toxic and you need to be extremely careful while working with them. For ions of barium there is a very good quality experiment we can do. If to the solution of salt of barium, such as the barium chloride, we add some sodium sulfate, then what will form is an almost insoluble in water white precipitate of barium sulfate. This reaction is very sensitive and it can be a very helping hand in detecting even small concentrations of sulphate in water. By the way, barium sulfate is used in medicine for x-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract such as the Radiocontrast substance. Barium metal on its own burns quite well in air. However, due to the relatively low melting temperature it does not burn completely, and burns with pumping action. I think this behavior is caused by the partially formed peroxide of barium, which reacts with the metal barium, and in that time the combustion is briefly enhanced. As a result of barium burning in the air we get oxide of barium. This oxide is used to create high-temperature superconducting ceramics, as well as an additive in the specialty glass GroGlass with low refractive index. On the surface of a tree barium burns more intensely because of an additional reaction with the cellulose from wood. If a piece of barium is rubbed on a file, you will notice the formation of small sparks, from the combustible particles of barium on air. Like other active metals, barium can react with sand, recovering silicon from its oxide. With sulfur the reaction goes rapidly, as with strontium. Nowadays the metal barium is mainly used as an additive to aluminum alloy – silumin. In the heyday of tube radio, barium was used as a getter, that is the absorber of gases in vacuum tubes to maintain high vacuum in them. If you break a lamp, you can see how quickly a thin layer of barium oxidizes. Also, compounds of barium are used in pyrotechnics to create the green color. Now you have learned more about one of the elements, if you want to continue the series with metals, subscribe to my channel and give some likes to see many more new and interesting!
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Praseodymium - A Metal that SLOWS The SPEED OF LIGHT!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ Thanks for the channel support: Gabor Buza, Yash Pande, Vadim Polyash, larry Han, Applied science. ATTENTION! This video shows dangerous experiments! Do not repeatthe experiments shown in this VIDEO! So, today I will continue to talk to you about the rare earth metals – lanthanides, and this time we will focus on the metal called praseodymium. It is a metal that has electrons in f orbitals, and is located in the period of lanthanides. Because of its chemical activity, praseodymium is stored in ampoules in order to prevent oxidation in air, after removing it from the ampoule praseodymium looks like a shiny metal with a yellow-green tint due to a layer of oxide covering the metal. Praseodymium can be found in nature in the monazite and bastnasite minerals which are used for producing almost all of the rare earth metals. Price-wise praseodymium is almost the same as neodymium, I paid $15 for 10 grams in a vial. From the chemical point of view, praseodymium can resemble neodymium as it is also readily soluble in hydrochloric acid, forming praseodymium chloride - a green substance, like many of its compounds. Even the name praseodymium derived from the Greek prasinos, which means green. If we add sodium hydroxide to the praseodymium chloride, it will form a greenish precipitate of praseodymium hydroxide. This hydroxide, like many compounds of lanthanides, forms a soluble complex with Trilon b – a compound that is used to remove scale from kettles. Praseodymium dissolves in acetic acid, and like other lanthanides forms a suspension of the hydroxides due to the hydrolysis with water. When heating with a burner, pieces of praseodymium are oxidized in air and being covered with an oxide layer, but they will not light up. Though the powder of praseodymium lits quite well, forming fumes from its oxides. The oxide of praseodymium is used in the production of a very unusual glass which is able to slow down the speed of a light pulse by changing its group velocity due to the high refractive index of the glass. Also, the glass made with the addition of praseodymium has a greenish yellow color, it is used as a light filter in the glasses for glassblowers. Praseodymium, like neodymium, is weakly attracted to magnets and is paramagnetic. However, as with neodymium the composition of praseodymium-iron-boron can be used for the production of powerful praseodymium magnets. However these magnets have a big drawback – a low operating temperature, meaning that such magnets may lose their magnetic properties already at a temperature of 30 degrees Celsius, for example in the hands of a person. Neodymium magnets unlike praseodymium are demagnetized at 55 degrees Celsius, this effect is called the Curie point. Also the alloy of praseodymium and Nickel is used for creating ultra-low temperatures utilizing the cooling effect of the paramagnetic field. music by TOBU: https://www.youtube.com/user/tobuofficial
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Dr  Mercola Interviews Dr  Tomljenovic Full Interview
 
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Dr. Lucija Tomljenovic speaks about pharmaceutical fraud & adverse effects of aluminium adjuvants on the brain. Also please see this report on Micro and Nanocontamination of vaccines from the International Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination. New Quality-Control Investigations on Vaccines: Microand Nanocontamination http://medcraveonline.com/IJVV/IJVV-04-00072.pdf New published study (This week: 1/23/17) from Italy shows vaccines contaminated with undeclared micro and nano-sized particles! Good luck finding one mention of this study from the International Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination in the U.S. media! What does the study say? It's jaw-droppingly bad, just start with the discussion at the end, the scientists were "baffled", they found a bunch of stuff in ALL pediatric vaccines that they didn't expect to find like Lead, Tungsten, Zirconium, Iron, Nickel, Antimony, stainless steel, and chromium--to name a few! (The one vaccine that was 100% free from inorganic contaminants? A pet vaccine!) Discussion: "The quantity of foreign bodies detected and, in some cases, their unusual chemical compositions baffled us. The inorganic particles identified are neither biocompatible nor biodegradable, that means that they are biopersistent and can induce effects that can become evident either immediately close to injection time or after a certain time from administration. It is important to remember that particles (crystals and not molecules) are bodies foreign to the organism and they behave as such. More in particular, their toxicity is in some respects different from that of the chemical elements composing them, adding to that toxicity which, in any case, is still there, that typical of foreign bodies. For that reason, they induce an inflammatory reaction." and, "Specific researches on components of the vaccines like adjuvants (in most instances, Aluminum salts) are already indicated as possible responsible of neurological symptoms" and, "The investigations verified the physical-chemical composition of the vaccines considered according to the inorganic component as declared by the Producer. In detail, we verified the presence of saline and Aluminum salts, but further presence of micro-, sub- micro- and nanosized, inorganic, foreign bodies (ranging from 100nm to about ten microns) was identified in all cases, whose presence was not declared in the leaflets delivered in the package of the product." and, "As can be seen, the particles are surrounded and embedded in a biological substrate. In all the samples analyzed, we identified particles containing: Lead (Typhym, Cervarix, Agrippal S1, Meningitec, Gardasil) or stainless steel (Mencevax, Infarix Hexa, Cervarix. Anatetall, Focetria, Agrippal S1, Menveo, Prevenar 13, Meningitec, Vaxigrip, Stamaril Pasteur, Repevax and MMRvaxPro)." and, "Figure 3a-3d show particles of Tungsten identified in drops of Prevenar and Infarix (Aluminum, Tungsten, Calcium chloride). Figure 6a & 6b show one of the foreign bodies identified in Agrippal. The particle is composed of Cerium, Iron, Titanium and Nickel. (Figure 7a & 7b) present an area of Repevax where the morphology of red cells - we cannot tell whether they are human or animal- is clearly visible." and, "The link between these two entities generates an unfolding of the proteins that can induce an autoimmune effect once those proteins are injected into humans." Study name and journal: New Quality-Control Investigations on Vaccines: Micro- and Nanocontamination. International Journal of Vaccines and Vaccination "The results of this new investigation show the presence of micro- and nanosized particulate matter composed of inorganic elements in vaccines’ samples which is not declared among the components and whose unduly presence is, for the time being, inexplicable. A considerable part of those particulate contaminants have already been verified in other matrices and reported in literature as non biodegradable and non biocompatible." "As happens with all foreign bodies, particularly that small, they induce an inflammatory reaction that is chronic because most of those particles cannot be degraded. Furthermore, the protein- corona effect (due to a nano-bio-interaction [18]) can produce organic/inorganic composite particles capable of stimulating the immune system in an undesirable way [19-22]. It is impossible not to add that particles the size often observed in vaccines can enter cell nuclei and interact with the DNA [23]." Video interview & Mercola article Courtesy of Dr Mercola. Published on 29 Mar 2015. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2015/03/29/vaccine-adjuvants-brain-effects.aspx?x_cid=youtube https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HVJkzWXG6CQ&feature=youtu.be
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Strontium  - Metal that Absorbs X-RAYS!
 
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Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/Thoisoi?ty=h Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/thoisoi2 Interesting page about chemical experiments: http://m.chemicum.com/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/thoisoi/ So today I will tell you about one interesting metal - strontium. Strontium is an alkaline earth metal that is in the second group of the periodic system of chemical elements. This metal is fairly active, and thus it is stored in either kerosene or in mineral oil. For you to see the surface of strontium a bit better I washed its pieces from the oil in ethyl acetate. The strontium’s surface is black due to the fact that it was oxidised even while being in oil, and then it coated itself with a layer of strontium oxide and nitride. Strontium is a pretty solid metal resembling lead solder, but some pieces can break apart because of the fragile crystal structure. Strontium reacts with water forming hydrogen and strontium hydroxide. Though the reaction is more intense in hot water. If you set fire to a piece of strontium, it will first melt, and then ignite forming strontium oxide which can paint the flame of the burner in red. Strontium reacts with acids, such as hydrochloric acid, forming strontium chloride and hydrogen. With nitric acid, the reaction is also very rapid. Like all of the active metals, strontium reacts with sulfur when ignited. Nowadays strontium and its compounds are used in metallurgy, nuclear energy and medicine. Most often in everyday life we may encounter strontium compounds by using pyrotechnics. Strontium salts are part of the lighting pieces and other pyrotechnic articles because of their capacity to stain the flame in bright red. Also, most of the produced strontium compounds were previously used in the manufacture of glass for the old kinescope TVs and monitors because of the ability of strontium to absorb X-rays. Warning! Some experiments are dangerous, do not try it by yourself!
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Thorium.
 
06:27:00
http://ThoriumRemix.com/ Thorium is an abundant material which can be transformed into massive quantities of energy. To do so efficiently requires a very different nuclear reactor than the kind we use today- Not one that uses solid fuel rods, but a reactor in which the fuel is kept in a liquid state. Not one that uses pressurized water as a coolant, but a reactor that uses chemically stable molten salts. Such a reactor is called a "Molten Salt Reactor". Many different configurations are possible. Some of these configurations can harness Thorium very efficiently. This video explores the attributes of Molten Salt Reactors. Why are they compelling? And why do many people (including myself) see them as the only economical way of fully harnessing ALL our nuclear fuels... including Thorium. This video has been under development since 2012. I hope it conveys to you why I personally find Molten Salt Reactors so compelling, as do the many volunteers and supporters who helped create it. Much of the footage was shot by volunteers. All music was created by: http://kilowattsmusic.com To support this project, please visit: https://patreon.com/thorium Entities pursuing Molten Salt Reactors are... Flibe Energy - http://flibe-energy.com/ Terrestrial Energy - http://terrestrialenergy.com/ Moltex Energy - http://www.moltexenergy.com/ ThorCon Power - http://thorconpower.com/ Transatomic - http://www.transatomicpower.com/ Seaborg - http://seaborg.co/ Copenhagen Atomics - http://www.copenhagenatomics.com/ TerraPower - http://terrapower.com/ Bhabha Atomic Research Centre - http://www.barc.gov.in/ Chinese Academy of Sciences - http://english.cas.cn/ Regular Thorium conferences are organized by: http://thoriumenergyalliance.com/ http://thoriumenergyworld.com/ Table of Contents 0:00:00 Space 0:17:29 Constraints 0:28:22 Coolants 0:40:15 MSRE 0:48:54 Earth 0:59:46 Thorium 1:22:03 LFTR 1:36:13 Revolution 1:44:58 Forward 1:58:11 ROEI 2:05:41 Beginning 2:08:36 History 2:38:59 Dowtherm 2:47:57 Salt 2:51:44 Pebbles 3:06:07 India 3:18:44 Caldicott 3:35:55 Fission 3:56:22 Spectrum 4:04:25 Chemistry 4:12:51 Turbine 4:22:27 Waste 4:40:15 Decommission 4:54:39 Candlelight 5:13:06 Facts 5:26:08 Future 5:55:39 Pitches 5:56:17 Terrestrial 6:08:33 ThorCon 6:11:45 Flibe 6:20:51 End 6:25:53 Credits Some of this footage is remixed from non-MSR related sources, to help explain the importance of energy for both space exploration and everyday life here on Earth. Most prominently... Pandora's Promise - https://youtu.be/bDw3ET3zqxk Dr. Neil DeGrasse Tyson - https://youtu.be/Pun76NZMjCk Dr. Robert Zubrin - https://youtu.be/EKQSijn9FBs Mars Underground - https://youtu.be/tcTZvNLL0-w Andy Weir & Adam Savage - https://youtu.be/5SemyzKgaUU Periodic Table Videos - https://youtube.com/channel/UCtESv1e7ntJaLJYKIO1FoYw
Просмотров: 134397 gordonmcdowell
London Commodity Markets - Uses for the Rare Earth Element Erbium
 
01:18
Erbium has many varied applications in modern technology, making demand for this rare earth metal continue to grow. For information about investing in erbium and other rare earth elements, contact London Commodity Markets: http://londoncommoditymarkets.com/contact.php
Просмотров: 104 LdnCommodityMarkets
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
 
25:04
Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is a type of mass spectrometry which is capable of detecting metals and several non-metals at concentrations as low as one part in 1012 (part per trillion). This is achieved by ionizing the sample with inductively coupled plasma and then using a mass spectrometer to separate and quantify those ions. Compared to atomic absorption techniques, ICP-MS has greater speed, precision, and sensitivity. However, analysis by ICP-MS is also more susceptible to trace contaminants from glassware and reagents. In addition, the presence of some ions can interfere with the detection of other ions. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Просмотров: 4143 Audiopedia
Praseodymium sparks
 
00:08
Mixture composed of: fine praseodymium (metal), potassium chlorate and a little sugar.
Просмотров: 336 MN's LAB
Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles
 
03:35
The formation of silver nanoparticles can be observed by a change in color since small nanoparticles of silver are yellow. A layer of absorbed borohydride anions on the surface of the nanoparticles keep the nanoparticles separated. When sodium cholride (NaCl) is added the nanoparticles aggregate and the suspension turns cloudy gray. The addition of a small amount of polyvinyl pyrrolidone will prevent aggregation.
Просмотров: 84451 Wisconsin Mrsec
Neodymium acetates 、Erbium chloride Rare earth chloride, acetic acid rare earth
 
00:21
Email:yuexiangsampson@outlook.com,Mr Sampson,www.yuexiangenzyme.com,Neodymium acetates 、Erbium chloride、Rare earth chloride, acetic acid rare earth.www.yuexiangchem.com.
Просмотров: 90 Sampson Yuexiang
Tangy Tangerine 2.0 & Weight Loss & Diabetes - Dr. Joel Wallach & Pharmacist Ben Fuchs:
 
24:54
Tangy Tangerine 2.0 & Weight Loss & Diabetes - Dr. Joel Wallach & Pharmacist Ben Fuchs: --- 90 ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS --- "Every man, woman and child needs 90 essential nutrients just to survive, much less to thrive. To put the odds in your favor to live as long as possible, with the highest possible quality of life, you must get these nutrients every day.” (Dr. Joel Wallach) Did you know that only 8-12% of the typical nutritional supplements available today are actually absorbed by your body? That means that approximately 90% of typical supplements are flushed down the drain. Youngevity’s supplements are 90-98% absorbable! Why is there such a difference? The secret is our exclusive source of plant-derived minerals that dramatically increase bioavailability (absorbability). We combine superior raw materials with state-of-the-art processing and production, so it’s no wonder that Youngevity products get you results. --- 90 ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS --- +60 MINERALS+ Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, Sulfur, Cobalt, Copper, Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Beryllium, Boron, Bromine, Carbon, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Selenium, Zinc, Cerium, Cesium, Chromium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Europium, Gadolinium, Gallium, Germanium, Gold, Hafnium, Holmium, Hydrogen, Lanthanum, Lithium, Lutetium, Molybdenum, Neodymium, Nickel, Niobium, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Praseodymium, Rhenium, Rubidium, Samarium, Scandium, Silica, Silver, Strontium, Tantalum, Terbium, Thulium, Tin, Titanium, Vanadium, Ytterbium, Yttrium, Zirconium +2-3 ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS+ Omega 3, Omega 6, Omega 9 +16 VITAMINS+ Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Biotin, Choline, Flavonoids (Bioflavonoids), Folic Acid, Inositol + 12 AMINO ACIDS+: Valine, Lysine, Threonine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Tryptophan, Phenylalanine, Methionine, Histidine, Arginine, Taurine, Tyrosine Save Money, Get Healthy, Create Wealth With Youngevity, And Be On Golden Stars! For more information on Youngevity® and how it can help you, please visit: Website: www.ongoldenstars.youngevityonline.com Email: ongoldenstars@gmail.com FREE SHIPPING!
Просмотров: 681 Youngevity
what is cesium
 
01:11
Name Origin Latin: caesius (sky blue); its salts turn flames blue. "Caesium" in different languages. Sources Found in pollucite and as trace in lepidolite (KLi2Al(Al,Si)3O10(F,OH)2). World production is around 20 tons per year. Abundance Universe: 0.0008 ppm (by weight) Sun: 0.008 ppm (by weight) Carbonaceous meteorite: 0.14 ppm Earth's Crust: 3 ppm Seawater: 3 x 104 ppm Human: 20 ppb by weight 1 ppb by atoms Uses Used as a 'getter' to remove air traces in vacuum tubes. Since it ionizes readily, it is used as an ion rocket motor propellant. Also used in photoelectric cells, atomic clocks, infrared lamps. Radioactive isotopes of caesium are used in the medical field to treat certain types of cancer. This metal is also used in photoelectric cells due to its ready emission of electrons. History Caesium (Latin caesius meaning "sky blue" or "light blue") was spectroscopically discovered by Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff in 1860 in mineral water from Durkheim, Germany. Its identification was based upon the bright blue lines in its spectrum and it was the first element discovered by spectrum analysis. The first caesium metal was produced in 1882 by Carl Setterberg. Historically, the most important use for caesium has been in research and development, primarily in chemical and electrical applications.
Просмотров: 2305 bbawor
Dr. Joel Wallach - Why Athletes Don't Live Long - Gatorade VS Rebound FX
 
04:37
Tangy Tangerine 2.0 & Weight Loss & Diabetes - Dr. Joel Wallach & Pharmacist Ben Fuchs: --- 90 ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS --- "Every man, woman and child needs 90 essential nutrients just to survive, much less to thrive. To put the odds in your favor to live as long as possible, with the highest possible quality of life, you must get these nutrients every day.” (Dr. Joel Wallach) Did you know that only 8-12% of the typical nutritional supplements available today are actually absorbed by your body? That means that approximately 90% of typical supplements are flushed down the drain. Youngevity’s supplements are 90-98% absorbable! Why is there such a difference? The secret is our exclusive source of plant-derived minerals that dramatically increase bioavailability (absorbability). We combine superior raw materials with state-of-the-art processing and production, so it’s no wonder that Youngevity products get you results. --- 90 ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS --- +60 MINERALS+ Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, Sulfur, Cobalt, Copper, Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Beryllium, Boron, Bromine, Carbon, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Selenium, Zinc, Cerium, Cesium, Chromium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Europium, Gadolinium, Gallium, Germanium, Gold, Hafnium, Holmium, Hydrogen, Lanthanum, Lithium, Lutetium, Molybdenum, Neodymium, Nickel, Niobium, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Praseodymium, Rhenium, Rubidium, Samarium, Scandium, Silica, Silver, Strontium, Tantalum, Terbium, Thulium, Tin, Titanium, Vanadium, Ytterbium, Yttrium, Zirconium +2-3 ESSENTIAL FATTY ACIDS+ Omega 3, Omega 6, Omega 9 +16 VITAMINS+ Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Biotin, Choline, Flavonoids (Bioflavonoids), Folic Acid, Inositol + 12 AMINO ACIDS+: Valine, Lysine, Threonine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Tryptophan, Phenylalanine, Methionine, Histidine, Arginine, Taurine, Tyrosine Save Money, Get Healthy, Create Wealth With Youngevity, And Be On Golden Stars! For more information on Youngevity® and how it can help you, please visit: Website: www.ongoldenstars.youngevityonline.com Email: ongoldenstars@gmail.com FREE SHIPPING!
Просмотров: 2550 Youngevity
Module 6: Introduction to Nanotechnology
 
59:04
The objectives for this module are that, by the end, learners should be able to (1) define "nanotechnology" and related terms, (2) describe several notable nanomaterials, (3) explain how several notable nanomaterials are used, and (4) illustrate the lifecycle of several nanomaterial products.
Просмотров: 2935 METPHAST Program
Dead Doctor's Don't Lie by Dr  Joel Wallach
 
01:40:30
2004 Lecture by Dr. Joel Wallach Please visit http://jbell.com 60 Minerals Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, Sulfur, Cobalt, Copper, Aluminum, Arsenic, Barium, Beryllium, Boron, Bromine, Carbon, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Selenium, Zinc, Cerium, Cesium, Chromium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Europium, Gadolinium, Gallium, Germanium, Gold, Hafnium, Holmium, Hydrogen, Lanthanum, Lithium, Lutetium, Molybdenum, Neodymium, Nickel, Niobium, Nitrogen, Oxygen, Praseodymium, Rhenium, Rubidium, Samarium, Scandium, Silica, Silver, Strontium, Tantalum, Terbium, Thulium, Tin, Titanium, Vanadium, Ytterbium, Yttrium, Zirconium 2-3 Essential Fatty Acids Omega 3, Omega 6, Omega 9 16 Vitamins Vitamin A, Vitamin B1, Vitamin B2, Vitamin B3, Vitamin B5, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Vitamin C, Vitamin D, Vitamin K, Biotin, Choline, Flavonoids (Bioflavonoids), Folic Acid, Inositol 12 Amino Acids Valine, Lysine, Threonine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Tryptophan, Phenylalanine, Methionine, Histidine, Arginine, Taurine, Tyrosine - See more at: http://jbell.com
Просмотров: 473 J Bell
Acid Reflex Therapy - (Vemma)
 
00:36
Vemma is a product that helps assist those with EA/TEF who suffer from acid reflux. The Vemma formula contains over 65 major, trace and ultra-trace minerals. Because we source our minerals from naturally occurring vegetation, the level of individual minerals may vary slightly from batch to batch. The Vemma formula proprietary mineral blend contains the following minerals: Carbon (Organic), Calcium, Sodium, Sulfur, Magnesium, Chloride, Bromide, Fluorine, Iodine, Potassium, Niobium, Aluminum, Iron, Phosphorus, Silica, Manganese, Boron, Strontium, Titanium, Tungsten, Copper, Zinc, Tin, Zirconium, Molybdenum, Vanadium, Chromium, Selenium, Nickel, Cobalt, Lithium, Gallium, Barium, Yttrium, Neodymium, Hafnium, Cadmium, Thorium, Antimony, Cerium, Tellurium, Beryllium, Samarium, Dysprosium, Erbium, Bismuth, Gadolinium, Cesium, Lanthanum, Praseodymium, Europium, Lutetium, Terbium, Ytterbium, Holmium, Thallium, Thulium, Tantalum, Germanium, Gold, Platinum, Rhodium, Rubidium, Ruthenium, Scandium, Silver and Indium
Просмотров: 153 Christys Courage
Lanthanide | Wikipedia audio article
 
53:45
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lanthanide 00:02:05 1 Etymology 00:07:51 2 Physical properties of the elements 00:09:55 3 Chemistry and compounds 00:10:56 3.1 Effect of 4f orbitals 00:13:48 3.2 Lanthanide oxidation states 00:15:53 3.3 Separation of lanthanides 00:17:21 3.4 Coordination chemistry and catalysis 00:20:40 3.4.1 Ln(III) compounds 00:21:42 3.4.2 Ln(II) and Ln(IV) compounds 00:23:02 3.4.3 Hydrides 00:23:53 3.4.4 Halides 00:26:36 3.4.5 Oxides and hydroxides 00:29:07 3.4.6 Chalcogenides (S, Se, Te) 00:32:10 3.4.7 Pnictides (group 15) 00:33:57 3.4.8 Carbides 00:35:49 3.4.9 Borides 00:40:11 3.4.10 Organometallic compounds 00:41:04 4 Physical properties 00:41:13 4.1 Magnetic and spectroscopic 00:43:28 5 Occurrence 00:44:45 6 Applications 00:44:54 6.1 Industrial 00:47:27 6.2 Life science 00:49:46 6.3 Upcoming Medical Uses 00:52:36 7 Biological effects 00:53:24 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The lanthanide () or lanthanoid () series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium. These elements, along with the chemically similar elements scandium and yttrium, are often collectively known as the rare earth elements. The informal chemical symbol Ln is used in general discussions of lanthanide chemistry to refer to any lanthanide. All but one of the lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell; depending on the source, either lanthanum or lutetium is considered a d-block element, but is included due to its chemical similarities with the other 14. All lanthanide elements form trivalent cations, Ln3+, whose chemistry is largely determined by the ionic radius, which decreases steadily from lanthanum to lutetium. They are called lanthanides because the elements in the series are chemically similar to lanthanum. Both lanthanum and lutetium have been labeled as group 3 elements, because they have a single valence electron in the 5d shell. However, both elements are often included in discussions of the chemistry of lanthanide elements. Lanthanum is the more often omitted of the two, because its placement as a group 3 element is somewhat more common in texts and for semantic reasons: since "lanthanide" means "like lanthanum", it has been argued that lanthanum cannot logically be a lanthanide, but IUPAC acknowledges its inclusion based on common usage.In presentations of the periodic table, the lanthanides and the actinides are customarily shown as two additional rows below the main body of the table, with placeholders or else a selected single element of each series (either lanthanum and actinium, or lutetium and lawrencium) shown in a single cell of the main table, between barium and hafnium, and radium and rutherfordium, respectively. This convention is entirely a matter of aesthetics and formatting practicality; a rarely used wide-formatted periodic table inserts the lanthanide and actinide series in their proper places, as parts of the table's sixth and seventh rows (periods).
Просмотров: 7 wikipedia tts
Element Collector ep. 9: Lanthanum (#57)
 
03:03
The first element in the Rare Earths category (Lanthanides). This element can be used in lighter flints and in lantern mantles because it glows when heated. 14 more elements to go!
Просмотров: 268 Driffoid
Thorium
 
31:32
Thorium is a naturally occurring radioactive chemical element with the symbol Th and atomic number 90. It was discovered in 1828 by the Norwegian mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jakob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. Thorium produces a radioactive gas, radon-220, as one of its decay products. Secondary decay products of thorium include radium and actinium. In nature, virtually all thorium is found as thorium-232, which undergoes alpha decay with a half-life of about 14.05 billion years. Other isotopes of thorium are short-lived intermediates in the decay chains of higher elements, and only found in trace amounts. Thorium is estimated to be about three to four times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust, and is chiefly refined from monazite sands as a by-product of extracting rare earth metals. This video is targeted to blind users. Attribution: Article text available under CC-BY-SA Creative Commons image source in video
Просмотров: 1155 Audiopedia
Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Energy
 
01:40:44
Просмотров: 170 uchicagoarts
soda is brain poison
 
13:47
I've been drinking soda for quite some time. And every once and a while I decide to quit. But I always seem to go back to it even though I know that pop is bad for you. So I decided to look up and see what exactly soda does to people. And from what I am finding out soda, basically makes people stupider. sources: http://www.thatdiary.com/health/mental/135/8-negative-effects-of-soda-on-your-brain http://www.livestrong.com/article/525948-does-soda-affect-your-brain/ http://www.livestrong.com/article/454154-does-caffeine-affect-dopamine-levels/ http://www.rodalesorganiclife.com/wellbeing/9-disturbing-side-effects-of-soda?slide=1/slide/7 http://www.rodalesorganiclife.com/wellbeing/9-disturbing-side-effects-of-soda?slide=1/slide/8 http://www.webmd.com/alzheimers/news/20071207/sugar-alzheimers-are-they-linked#1 http://dornsife.usc.edu/news/stories/1863/sugar-linked-to-memory-woes/ http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2015/04/06/sugar-brain-mental-health_n_6904778.html http://www.olsonnd.com/what-sugar-does-to-your-brain/
Просмотров: 46 PMW3
Electronic  विन्यास लिखना अब तक नहीं  सीखा देखिए   बेजोड़  तरीका
 
07:59
केमिस्ट्री का टेन्शन खत्म करे , सीखे जादू की तरह तुरंत
Просмотров: 65171 ashok kumar
Ultraviolet | Wikipedia audio article
 
58:59
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ultraviolet 00:01:38 1 Visibility 00:02:33 2 Discovery 00:04:19 3 Subtypes 00:07:44 4 Solar ultraviolet 00:09:51 5 Blockers and absorbers 00:11:49 6 Artificial sources 00:11:58 6.1 "Black lights" 00:13:22 6.2 Short-wave ultraviolet lamps 00:14:42 6.3 Incandescent lamps 00:15:19 6.4 Gas-discharge lamps 00:16:20 6.5 Ultraviolet LEDs 00:17:22 6.6 Ultraviolet lasers 00:19:13 6.7 Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) via sum and difference frequency mixing 00:20:52 6.8 Plasma and synchrotron sources of extreme UV 00:21:38 7 Human health-related effects 00:22:06 7.1 Beneficial effects 00:23:04 7.1.1 Skin conditions 00:23:47 7.2 Harmful effects 00:25:23 7.2.1 Skin damage 00:28:36 7.2.1.1 Sunscreen safety debate 00:30:58 7.2.2 Aggravation of certain skin conditions 00:31:23 7.2.3 Eye damage 00:32:52 8 Degradation of polymers, pigments and dyes 00:34:19 9 Applications 00:35:56 9.1 Photography 00:37:31 9.2 Electrical and electronics industry 00:38:06 9.3 Fluorescent dye uses 00:39:46 9.4 Analytic uses 00:39:55 9.4.1 Forensics 00:40:49 9.4.2 Enhancing contrast of ink 00:41:31 9.4.3 Sanitary compliance 00:42:10 9.4.4 Chemistry 00:43:12 9.5 Material science uses 00:43:22 9.5.1 Fire detection 00:45:06 9.5.2 Photolithography 00:46:06 9.5.3 Polymers 00:48:01 9.6 Biology-related uses 00:48:11 9.6.1 Air purification 00:49:54 9.6.2 Sterilization and disinfection 00:52:12 9.6.3 Biological 00:54:39 9.6.4 Therapy 00:55:32 9.6.5 Herpetology 00:57:27 10 Evolutionary significance 00:58:32 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight constituting about 10% of the total light output of the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure of the skin to UV, along with higher risk of skin cancer. Living things on dry land would be severely damaged by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun if most of it were not filtered out by the Earth's atmosphere. More-energetic, shorter-wavelength "extreme" UV below 121 nm ionizes air so strongly that it is absorbed before it reaches the ground. Ultraviolet is also responsible for the formation of bone-strengthening vitamin D in most land vertebrates, including humans (specifically, UVB). The UV spectrum thus has effects both beneficial and harmful to human health. Ultraviolet rays are invisible to all humans, although insects, birds, and some mammals can see near-UV.
Просмотров: 5 wikipedia tts
Lanthanide | Wikipedia audio article
 
53:38
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Lanthanide 00:02:05 1 Etymology 00:07:50 2 Physical properties of the elements 00:09:54 3 Chemistry and compounds 00:10:55 3.1 Effect of 4f orbitals 00:13:45 3.2 Lanthanide oxidation states 00:15:50 3.3 Separation of lanthanides 00:17:18 3.4 Coordination chemistry and catalysis 00:20:37 3.4.1 Ln(III) compounds 00:21:39 3.4.2 Ln(II) and Ln(IV) compounds 00:22:59 3.4.3 Hydrides 00:23:51 3.4.4 Halides 00:26:34 3.4.5 Oxides and hydroxides 00:29:04 3.4.6 Chalcogenides (S, Se, Te) 00:32:05 3.4.7 Pnictides (group 15) 00:33:52 3.4.8 Carbides 00:35:44 3.4.9 Borides 00:40:05 3.4.10 Organometallic compounds 00:40:58 4 Physical properties 00:41:08 4.1 Magnetic and spectroscopic 00:43:22 5 Occurrence 00:44:39 6 Applications 00:44:48 6.1 Industrial 00:47:22 6.2 Life science 00:49:41 6.3 Upcoming Medical Uses 00:52:30 7 Biological effects 00:53:17 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= The lanthanide () or lanthanoid () series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium. These elements, along with the chemically similar elements scandium and yttrium, are often collectively known as the rare earth elements. The informal chemical symbol Ln is used in general discussions of lanthanide chemistry to refer to any lanthanide. All but one of the lanthanides are f-block elements, corresponding to the filling of the 4f electron shell; depending on the source, either lanthanum or lutetium is considered a d-block element, but is included due to its chemical similarities with the other 14. All lanthanide elements form trivalent cations, Ln3+, whose chemistry is largely determined by the ionic radius, which decreases steadily from lanthanum to lutetium. They are called lanthanides because the elements in the series are chemically similar to lanthanum. Both lanthanum and lutetium have been labeled as group 3 elements, because they have a single valence electron in the 5d shell. However, both elements are often included in discussions of the chemistry of lanthanide elements. Lanthanum is the more often omitted of the two, because its placement as a group 3 element is somewhat more common in texts and for semantic reasons: since "lanthanide" means "like lanthanum", it has been argued that lanthanum cannot logically be a lanthanide, but IUPAC acknowledges its inclusion based on common usage.In presentations of the periodic table, the lanthanides and the actinides are customarily shown as two additional rows below the main body of the table, with placeholders or else a selected single element of each series (either lanthanum and actinium, or lutetium and lawrencium) shown in a single cell of the main table, between barium and hafnium, and radium and rutherfordium, respectively. This convention is entirely a matter of aesthetics and formatting practicality; a rarely used wide-formatted periodic table inserts the lanthanide and actinide series in their proper places, as parts of the table's sixth and seventh rows (periods).
Просмотров: 13 wikipedia tts
Thorium | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:05:02
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thorium 00:01:59 1 Bulk properties 00:05:43 2 Isotopes 00:11:04 2.1 Radiometric dating 00:12:59 3 Chemistry 00:15:57 3.1 Reactivity 00:17:16 3.2 Inorganic compounds 00:20:04 3.3 Coordination compounds 00:20:20 3.4 Organothorium compounds 00:22:34 4 Occurrence 00:23:07 4.1 Formation 00:23:16 4.2 On Earth 00:24:59 5 History 00:26:07 5.1 Erroneous report 00:26:16 5.2 Discovery 00:29:42 5.3 Initial chemical classification 00:29:51 5.4 First uses 00:30:03 5.5 Radioactivity 00:30:58 5.6 Further classification 00:32:43 5.7 Phasing out 00:33:42 5.8 Nuclear power 00:34:23 5.9 Nuclear weapons 00:36:24 6 Production 00:38:11 6.1 Concentration 00:39:11 6.1.1 Acid digestion 00:40:36 6.1.2 Alkaline digestion 00:41:14 6.2 Purification 00:42:15 7 Modern applications 00:43:57 8 Potential use for nuclear energy 00:45:37 8.1 Advantages 00:47:35 8.2 Disadvantages 00:48:24 9 Hazards 00:52:48 9.1 Radiological 00:54:26 9.2 Biological 00:56:02 9.3 Chemical 00:59:04 9.4 Exposure routes 00:59:12 10 Notes 01:01:12 11 References 01:02:43 12 Bibliography 01:03:50 13 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is silvery and tarnishes black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide; it is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point. Thorium is an electropositive actinide whose chemistry is dominated by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive and can ignite in air when finely divided. All known thorium isotopes are unstable. The most stable isotope, 232Th, has a half-life of 14.05 billion years, or about the age of the universe; it decays very slowly via alpha decay, starting a decay chain named the thorium series that ends at stable 208Pb. In the universe, thorium and uranium are the only two radioactive elements that still occur naturally in large quantities as primordial elements. It is estimated to be over three times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust, and is chiefly refined from monazite sands as a by-product of extracting rare-earth metals. Thorium was discovered in 1829 by the Norwegian amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. Its first applications were developed in the late 19th century. Thorium's radioactivity was widely acknowledged during the first decades of the 20th century. In the second half of the century, thorium was replaced in many uses due to concerns about its radioactivity. Thorium is still being used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes but is slowly being replaced in the field with different compositions. It was also a material in high-end optics and scientific instrumentation, and as the light source in gas mantles, but these uses have become marginal. It has been suggested as a replacement for uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, and several thorium reactors have been built.
Просмотров: 10 wikipedia tts
Thorium | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:04:39
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Thorium 00:01:58 1 Bulk properties 00:05:41 2 Isotopes 00:10:59 2.1 Radiometric dating 00:12:53 3 Chemistry 00:15:51 3.1 Reactivity 00:17:09 3.2 Inorganic compounds 00:19:57 3.3 Coordination compounds 00:20:12 3.4 Organothorium compounds 00:22:25 4 Occurrence 00:22:56 4.1 Formation 00:23:05 4.2 On Earth 00:24:48 5 History 00:25:55 5.1 Erroneous report 00:26:04 5.2 Discovery 00:29:27 5.3 Initial chemical classification 00:29:37 5.4 First uses 00:29:49 5.5 Radioactivity 00:30:43 5.6 Further classification 00:32:28 5.7 Phasing out 00:33:27 5.8 Nuclear power 00:34:07 5.9 Nuclear weapons 00:36:08 6 Production 00:37:55 6.1 Concentration 00:38:54 6.1.1 Acid digestion 00:40:19 6.1.2 Alkaline digestion 00:40:58 6.2 Purification 00:41:58 7 Modern applications 00:43:39 8 Potential use for nuclear energy 00:45:19 8.1 Advantages 00:47:18 8.2 Disadvantages 00:48:07 9 Hazards 00:52:30 9.1 Radiological 00:54:07 9.2 Biological 00:55:42 9.3 Chemical 00:58:42 9.4 Exposure routes 00:58:51 10 Notes 01:00:50 11 References 01:02:21 12 Bibliography 01:03:27 13 Further reading Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90. Thorium is silvery and tarnishes black when it is exposed to air, forming thorium dioxide; it is moderately hard, malleable, and has a high melting point. Thorium is an electropositive actinide whose chemistry is dominated by the +4 oxidation state; it is quite reactive and can ignite in air when finely divided. All known thorium isotopes are unstable. The most stable isotope, 232Th, has a half-life of 14.05 billion years, or about the age of the universe; it decays very slowly via alpha decay, starting a decay chain named the thorium series that ends at stable 208Pb. In the universe, thorium and uranium are the only two radioactive elements that still occur naturally in large quantities as primordial elements. It is estimated to be over three times more abundant than uranium in the Earth's crust, and is chiefly refined from monazite sands as a by-product of extracting rare-earth metals. Thorium was discovered in 1829 by the Norwegian amateur mineralogist Morten Thrane Esmark and identified by the Swedish chemist Jöns Jacob Berzelius, who named it after Thor, the Norse god of thunder. Its first applications were developed in the late 19th century. Thorium's radioactivity was widely acknowledged during the first decades of the 20th century. In the second half of the century, thorium was replaced in many uses due to concerns about its radioactivity. Thorium is still being used as an alloying element in TIG welding electrodes but is slowly being replaced in the field with different compositions. It was also a material in high-end optics and scientific instrumentation, and as the light source in gas mantles, but these uses have become marginal. It has been suggested as a replacement for uranium as nuclear fuel in nuclear reactors, and several thorium reactors have been built.
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Zinc | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:01:54
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Zinc Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan and Georgia, and the second millennium BC in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq, and Israel (Judea). Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient Romans and Greeks. The mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC. To date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9th century AD when a distillation process was employed to make pure zinc. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke (prong, tooth). German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in electrical batteries, small non-structural castings, and alloys such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. Zinc is an essential mineral, including to prenatal and postnatal development. Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea. Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy, and copper deficiency.
Просмотров: 14 wikipedia tts
Aluminium | Wikipedia audio article
 
47:56
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aluminium 00:01:14 1 Physical characteristics 00:01:24 1.1 Nuclei and isotopes 00:02:59 1.2 Electron shell 00:04:17 1.3 Bulk 00:06:08 2 Chemistry 00:08:04 2.1 Inorganic compounds 00:11:28 2.1.1 Rarer oxidation states 00:11:50 2.1.1.1 Aluminium(I) 00:12:56 2.1.1.2 Aluminium(II) 00:13:27 2.2 Organoaluminium compounds and related hydrides 00:15:05 3 Natural occurrence 00:15:15 3.1 In space 00:16:24 3.2 On Earth 00:18:26 4 History 00:24:50 5 Etymology 00:26:01 5.1 Spelling 00:28:44 6 Production and refinement 00:29:52 6.1 Bayer process 00:31:07 6.2 Hall–Héroult process 00:33:30 6.3 Recycling 00:34:50 7 Applications 00:34:59 7.1 Metal 00:37:02 7.2 Compounds 00:40:00 8 Biology 00:40:31 8.1 Toxicity 00:41:26 8.2 Effects 00:43:10 8.3 Exposure routes 00:44:25 8.4 Treatment 00:45:07 9 Environmental effects 00:47:34 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium.Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, and studies continue.
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Ultraviolet | Wikipedia audio article
 
58:56
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Ultraviolet 00:01:38 1 Visibility 00:02:33 2 Discovery 00:04:17 3 Subtypes 00:07:42 4 Solar ultraviolet 00:09:49 5 Blockers and absorbers 00:11:46 6 Artificial sources 00:11:56 6.1 "Black lights" 00:13:19 6.2 Short-wave ultraviolet lamps 00:14:40 6.3 Incandescent lamps 00:15:17 6.4 Gas-discharge lamps 00:16:17 6.5 Ultraviolet LEDs 00:17:20 6.6 Ultraviolet lasers 00:19:11 6.7 Tunable vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) via sum and difference frequency mixing 00:20:50 6.8 Plasma and synchrotron sources of extreme UV 00:21:36 7 Human health-related effects 00:22:03 7.1 Beneficial effects 00:23:02 7.1.1 Skin conditions 00:23:44 7.2 Harmful effects 00:25:21 7.2.1 Skin damage 00:28:34 7.2.1.1 Sunscreen safety debate 00:30:55 7.2.2 Aggravation of certain skin conditions 00:31:20 7.2.3 Eye damage 00:32:49 8 Degradation of polymers, pigments and dyes 00:34:16 9 Applications 00:35:53 9.1 Photography 00:37:29 9.2 Electrical and electronics industry 00:38:03 9.3 Fluorescent dye uses 00:39:44 9.4 Analytic uses 00:39:52 9.4.1 Forensics 00:40:46 9.4.2 Enhancing contrast of ink 00:41:28 9.4.3 Sanitary compliance 00:42:06 9.4.4 Chemistry 00:43:09 9.5 Material science uses 00:43:18 9.5.1 Fire detection 00:45:03 9.5.2 Photolithography 00:46:03 9.5.3 Polymers 00:47:58 9.6 Biology-related uses 00:48:07 9.6.1 Air purification 00:49:51 9.6.2 Sterilization and disinfection 00:52:09 9.6.3 Biological 00:54:36 9.6.4 Therapy 00:55:28 9.6.5 Herpetology 00:57:23 10 Evolutionary significance 00:58:29 11 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight constituting about 10% of the total light output of the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure of the skin to UV, along with higher risk of skin cancer. Living things on dry land would be severely damaged by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun if most of it were not filtered out by the Earth's atmosphere. More-energetic, shorter-wavelength "extreme" UV below 121 nm ionizes air so strongly that it is absorbed before it reaches the ground. Ultraviolet is also responsible for the formation of bone-strengthening vitamin D in most land vertebrates, including humans (specifically, UVB). The UV spectrum thus has effects both beneficial and harmful to human health. Ultraviolet rays are invisible to all humans, although insects, birds, and some mammals can see near-UV.
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Yttrium | Wikipedia audio article
 
28:20
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Yttrium 00:01:17 1 Characteristics 00:01:27 1.1 Properties 00:02:38 1.2 Similarity to the lanthanides 00:03:59 1.3 Compounds and reactions 00:06:28 1.4 Isotopes and nucleosynthesis 00:09:17 2 History 00:10:18 3 Occurrence 00:12:44 3.1 Abundance 00:12:53 3.2 Production 00:14:58 4 Applications 00:18:56 4.1 Consumer 00:19:05 4.2 Garnets 00:20:30 4.3 Material enhancer 00:21:47 4.4 Medical 00:22:55 4.5 Superconductors 00:24:48 5 Precautions 00:26:37 6 See also 00:28:07 7 Notes Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element". Yttrium is almost always found in combination with lanthanide elements in rare-earth minerals, and is never found in nature as a free element. 89Y is the only stable isotope, and the only isotope found in the Earth's crust. In 1787, Carl Axel Arrhenius found a new mineral near Ytterby in Sweden and named it ytterbite, after the village. Johan Gadolin discovered yttrium's oxide in Arrhenius' sample in 1789, and Anders Gustaf Ekeberg named the new oxide yttria. Elemental yttrium was first isolated in 1828 by Friedrich Wöhler.The most important uses of yttrium are LEDs and phosphors, particularly the red phosphors in television set cathode ray tube (CRT) displays. Yttrium is also used in the production of electrodes, electrolytes, electronic filters, lasers, superconductors, various medical applications, and tracing various materials to enhance their properties. Yttrium has no known biological role. Exposure to yttrium compounds can cause lung disease in humans.
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Zinc | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:02:50
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Zinc 00:02:55 1 Characteristics 00:03:05 1.1 Physical properties 00:04:44 1.2 Occurrence 00:07:22 1.3 Isotopes 00:09:26 2 Compounds and chemistry 00:09:36 2.1 Reactivity 00:12:05 2.2 Zinc(I) compounds 00:12:57 2.3 Zinc(II) compounds 00:14:58 2.4 Test for zinc 00:15:33 3 History 00:15:42 3.1 Ancient use 00:18:24 3.2 Early studies and naming 00:20:18 3.3 Isolation 00:21:58 3.4 Later work 00:23:53 4 Production 00:24:02 4.1 Mining and processing 00:26:56 4.2 Environmental impact 00:28:52 5 Applications 00:29:17 5.1 Anti-corrosion and batteries 00:31:31 5.2 Alloys 00:34:35 5.3 Other industrial uses 00:37:29 5.4 Organic chemistry 00:39:51 5.5 Dietary supplement 00:41:42 5.5.1 Common cold 00:43:01 5.6 Topical use 00:43:36 6 Biological role 00:46:13 6.1 Enzymes 00:47:41 6.2 Signalling 00:48:02 6.3 Other proteins 00:49:53 6.4 Dietary recommendations 00:52:31 6.5 Dietary intake 00:54:03 6.6 Deficiency 00:57:07 6.7 Soil remediation 00:57:27 6.8 Agriculture 00:58:24 7 Precautions 00:58:33 7.1 Toxicity 01:01:14 7.2 Poisoning 01:02:27 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan and Georgia, and the second millennium BC in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq, and Israel (Judea). Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient Romans and Greeks. The mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC. To date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9th century AD when a distillation process was employed to make pure zinc. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke (prong, tooth). German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in electrical batteries, small non-structural castings, and alloys such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. Zinc is an essential mineral, including to prenatal and postnatal development. Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea. Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy, and copper deficiency.
Просмотров: 8 wikipedia tts
Aluminium | Wikipedia audio article
 
47:49
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Aluminium 00:01:14 1 Physical characteristics 00:01:24 1.1 Nuclei and isotopes 00:03:00 1.2 Electron shell 00:04:17 1.3 Bulk 00:06:07 2 Chemistry 00:08:03 2.1 Inorganic compounds 00:11:26 2.1.1 Rarer oxidation states 00:11:47 2.1.1.1 Aluminium(I) 00:12:54 2.1.1.2 Aluminium(II) 00:13:25 2.2 Organoaluminium compounds and related hydrides 00:15:03 3 Natural occurrence 00:15:12 3.1 In space 00:16:22 3.2 On Earth 00:18:23 4 History 00:24:47 5 Etymology 00:25:57 5.1 Spelling 00:28:40 6 Production and refinement 00:29:47 6.1 Bayer process 00:31:02 6.2 Hall–Héroult process 00:33:24 6.3 Recycling 00:34:44 7 Applications 00:34:53 7.1 Metal 00:36:56 7.2 Compounds 00:39:53 8 Biology 00:40:24 8.1 Toxicity 00:41:20 8.2 Effects 00:43:05 8.3 Exposure routes 00:44:19 8.4 Treatment 00:45:01 9 Environmental effects 00:47:27 10 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13. It is a silvery-white, soft, nonmagnetic and ductile metal in the boron group. By mass, aluminium makes up about 8% of the Earth's crust; it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon and the most abundant metal in the crust, though it is less common in the mantle below. The chief ore of aluminium is bauxite. Aluminium metal is so chemically reactive that native specimens are rare and limited to extreme reducing environments. Instead, it is found combined in over 270 different minerals.Aluminium is remarkable for its low density and its ability to resist corrosion through the phenomenon of passivation. Aluminium and its alloys are vital to the aerospace industry and important in transportation and building industries, such as building facades and window frames. The oxides and sulfates are the most useful compounds of aluminium.Despite its prevalence in the environment, no known form of life uses aluminium salts metabolically, but aluminium is well tolerated by plants and animals. Because of these salts' abundance, the potential for a biological role for them is of continuing interest, and studies continue.
Просмотров: 12 wikipedia tts
Refrigeration | Wikipedia audio article
 
53:49
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Refrigeration 00:02:26 1 History 00:02:35 1.1 Earliest forms of cooling 00:04:34 1.2 Ice harvesting 00:06:37 1.3 Refrigeration research 00:11:53 1.4 Commercial use 00:17:16 1.5 Home and consumer use 00:19:47 2 Impact on settlement patterns 00:20:34 2.1 Refrigerated rail cars 00:23:17 2.2 Expansion west and into rural areas 00:25:35 2.3 Rise of the galactic city 00:27:00 3 Impact on agriculture and food production 00:28:05 3.1 Demographics 00:29:17 3.2 Meat packing and trade 00:30:58 3.3 Electricity in rural areas 00:32:29 3.4 Farm use 00:33:02 4 Effects on lifestyle and diet 00:34:04 4.1 Impact on nutrition 00:35:22 5 Current applications of refrigeration 00:37:44 6 Methods of refrigeration 00:38:01 6.1 Non-cyclic refrigeration 00:38:36 6.2 Cyclic refrigeration 00:40:25 6.2.1 Vapor-compression cycle 00:42:27 6.2.2 Vapor absorption cycle 00:43:55 6.2.3 Gas cycle 00:45:19 6.3 Thermoelectric refrigeration 00:45:43 6.4 Magnetic refrigeration 00:46:51 6.5 Other methods 00:47:46 6.6 Elastocaloric Refrigeration 00:50:05 6.7 Fridge Gate 00:51:25 6.8 Passive Systems 00:51:55 7 Capacity ratings Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir. The work of heat transfer is traditionally driven by mechanical means, but can also be driven by heat, magnetism, electricity, laser, or other means. Refrigeration has many applications, including, but not limited to: household refrigerators, industrial freezers, cryogenics, and air conditioning. Heat pumps may use the heat output of the refrigeration process, and also may be designed to be reversible, but are otherwise similar to air conditioning units. Refrigeration has had a large impact on industry, lifestyle, agriculture, and settlement patterns. The idea of preserving food dates back to at least the ancient Roman and Chinese empires. However, mechanical refrigeration technology has rapidly evolved in the last century, from ice harvesting to temperature-controlled rail cars. The introduction of refrigerated rail cars contributed to the westward expansion of the United States, allowing settlement in areas that were not on main transport channels such as rivers, harbors, or valley trails. Settlements were also developing in infertile parts of the country, filled with newly discovered natural resources. These new settlement patterns sparked the building of large cities which are able to thrive in areas that were otherwise thought to be inhospitable, such as Houston, Texas, and Las Vegas, Nevada. In most developed countries, cities are heavily dependent upon refrigeration in supermarkets, in order to obtain their food for daily consumption. The increase in food sources has led to a larger concentration of agricultural sales coming from a smaller percentage of existing farms. Farms today have a much larger output per person in comparison to the late 1800s. This has resulted in new food sources available to entire populations, which has had a large impact on the nutrition of society. As quite similar criteria shall be fulfilled by working fluids (refrigerants) applied to heat pumps, refrigeration and ORC cycles, several working fluids are applied by all these technologies. Ammonia was one of the first refrigerants. Refrigeration can be defined as "The science of providing and maintaining temperature below that of surrounding atmosphere". It means continuous extraction of heat from a body whose temperature is already below the temperature of its surroundings.
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Zinc | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:03:07
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc 00:02:57 1 Characteristics 00:03:06 1.1 Physical properties 00:04:46 1.2 Occurrence 00:07:25 1.3 Isotopes 00:09:30 2 Compounds and chemistry 00:09:39 2.1 Reactivity 00:12:10 2.2 Zinc(I) compounds 00:13:03 2.3 Zinc(II) compounds 00:15:05 2.4 Test for zinc 00:15:40 3 History 00:15:48 3.1 Ancient use 00:18:31 3.2 Early studies and naming 00:20:26 3.3 Isolation 00:22:06 3.4 Later work 00:24:01 4 Production 00:24:10 4.1 Mining and processing 00:27:06 4.2 Environmental impact 00:29:03 5 Applications 00:29:28 5.1 Anti-corrosion and batteries 00:31:43 5.2 Alloys 00:34:48 5.3 Other industrial uses 00:37:43 5.4 Organic chemistry 00:40:04 5.5 Dietary supplement 00:41:56 5.5.1 Common cold 00:43:15 5.6 Topical use 00:43:51 6 Biological role 00:46:28 6.1 Enzymes 00:47:56 6.2 Signalling 00:48:17 6.3 Other proteins 00:50:09 6.4 Dietary recommendations 00:52:47 6.5 Dietary intake 00:54:20 6.6 Deficiency 00:57:23 6.7 Soil remediation 00:57:44 6.8 Agriculture 00:58:40 7 Precautions 00:58:49 7.1 Toxicity 01:01:31 7.2 Poisoning 01:02:45 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan and Georgia, and the second millennium BC in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq, and Israel (Judea). Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient Romans and Greeks. The mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC. To date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9th century AD when a distillation process was employed to make pure zinc. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke (prong, tooth). German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in electrical batteries, small non-structural castings, and alloys such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. Zinc is an essential mineral, including to prenatal and postnatal development. Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea. Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy, and copper deficiency.
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Zinc | Wikipedia audio article
 
01:18:19
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zinc 00:03:41 1 Characteristics 00:03:50 1.1 Physical properties 00:05:55 1.2 Occurrence 00:09:12 1.3 Isotopes 00:11:50 2 Compounds and chemistry 00:12:00 2.1 Reactivity 00:15:08 2.2 Zinc(I) compounds 00:16:12 2.3 Zinc(II) compounds 00:18:43 2.4 Test for zinc 00:19:25 3 History 00:19:34 3.1 Ancient use 00:22:58 3.2 Early studies and naming 00:25:20 3.3 Isolation 00:27:25 3.4 Later work 00:29:48 4 Production 00:29:57 4.1 Mining and processing 00:33:36 4.2 Environmental impact 00:36:02 5 Applications 00:36:31 5.1 Anti-corrosion and batteries 00:39:20 5.2 Alloys 00:43:12 5.3 Other industrial uses 00:46:51 5.4 Organic chemistry 00:49:47 5.5 Dietary supplement 00:52:04 5.5.1 Common cold 00:53:42 5.6 Topical use 00:54:24 6 Biological role 00:57:40 6.1 Enzymes 00:59:28 6.2 Signalling 00:59:53 6.3 Other proteins 01:02:12 6.4 Dietary recommendations 01:05:31 6.5 Dietary intake 01:07:26 6.6 Deficiency 01:11:17 6.7 Soil remediation 01:11:40 6.8 Agriculture 01:12:49 7 Precautions 01:12:58 7.1 Toxicity 01:16:23 7.2 Poisoning 01:17:53 8 See also Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts Speaking Rate: 0.8086688804078577 Voice name: en-US-Wavenet-E "I cannot teach anybody anything, I can only make them think." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30. It is the first element in group 12 of the periodic table. In some respects zinc is chemically similar to magnesium: both elements exhibit only one normal oxidation state (+2), and the Zn2+ and Mg2+ ions are of similar size. Zinc is the 24th most abundant element in Earth's crust and has five stable isotopes. The most common zinc ore is sphalerite (zinc blende), a zinc sulfide mineral. The largest workable lodes are in Australia, Asia, and the United States. Zinc is refined by froth flotation of the ore, roasting, and final extraction using electricity (electrowinning). Brass, an alloy of copper and zinc in various proportions, was used as early as the third millennium BC in the Aegean, Iraq, the United Arab Emirates, Kalmykia, Turkmenistan and Georgia, and the second millennium BC in West India, Uzbekistan, Iran, Syria, Iraq, and Israel (Judea). Zinc metal was not produced on a large scale until the 12th century in India, though it was known to the ancient Romans and Greeks. The mines of Rajasthan have given definite evidence of zinc production going back to the 6th century BC. To date, the oldest evidence of pure zinc comes from Zawar, in Rajasthan, as early as the 9th century AD when a distillation process was employed to make pure zinc. Alchemists burned zinc in air to form what they called "philosopher's wool" or "white snow". The element was probably named by the alchemist Paracelsus after the German word Zinke (prong, tooth). German chemist Andreas Sigismund Marggraf is credited with discovering pure metallic zinc in 1746. Work by Luigi Galvani and Alessandro Volta uncovered the electrochemical properties of zinc by 1800. Corrosion-resistant zinc plating of iron (hot-dip galvanizing) is the major application for zinc. Other applications are in electrical batteries, small non-structural castings, and alloys such as brass. A variety of zinc compounds are commonly used, such as zinc carbonate and zinc gluconate (as dietary supplements), zinc chloride (in deodorants), zinc pyrithione (anti-dandruff shampoos), zinc sulfide (in luminescent paints), and zinc methyl or zinc diethyl in the organic laboratory. Zinc is an essential mineral, including to prenatal and postnatal development. Zinc deficiency affects about two billion people in the developing world and is associated with many diseases. In children, deficiency causes growth retardation, delayed sexual maturation, infection susceptibility, and diarrhea. Enzymes with a zinc atom in the reactive center are widespread in biochemistry, such as alcohol dehydrogenase in humans. Consumption of excess zinc can cause ataxia, lethargy, and copper defi ...
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Berkelium | Wikipedia audio article
 
42:29
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Berkelium 00:02:21 1 Characteristics 00:02:30 1.1 Physical 00:04:51 1.2 Allotropes 00:06:37 1.3 Chemical 00:07:47 1.4 Isotopes 00:08:53 1.5 Occurrence 00:10:24 2 History 00:14:58 3 Synthesis and extraction 00:15:07 3.1 Preparation of isotopes 00:25:41 3.2 Separation 00:28:01 3.3 Bulk metal preparation 00:30:49 4 Compounds 00:30:58 4.1 Oxides 00:32:29 4.2 Halides 00:35:48 4.3 Other inorganic compounds 00:37:00 4.4 Organoberkelium compounds 00:38:05 5 Applications 00:39:24 6 Nuclear fuel cycle 00:40:48 7 Health issues Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Berkelium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Bk and atomic number 97. It is a member of the actinide and transuranium element series. It is named after the city of Berkeley, California, the location of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (then the University of California Radiation Laboratory) where it was discovered in December 1949. Berkelium was the fifth transuranium element discovered after neptunium, plutonium, curium and americium. The major isotope of berkelium, 249Bk, is synthesized in minute quantities in dedicated high-flux nuclear reactors, mainly at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, USA, and at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors in Dimitrovgrad, Russia. The production of the second-most important isotope 247Bk involves the irradiation of the rare isotope 244Cm with high-energy alpha particles. Just over one gram of berkelium has been produced in the United States since 1967. There is no practical application of berkelium outside scientific research which is mostly directed at the synthesis of heavier transuranic elements and transactinides. A 22 milligram batch of berkelium-249 was prepared during a 250-day irradiation period and then purified for a further 90 days at Oak Ridge in 2009. This sample was used to synthesize the new element tennessine for the first time in 2009 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia, after it was bombarded with calcium-48 ions for 150 days. This was the culmination of the Russia–US collaboration on the synthesis of the heaviest elements on the periodic table. Berkelium is a soft, silvery-white, radioactive metal. The berkelium-249 isotope emits low-energy electrons and thus is relatively safe to handle. It decays with a half-life of 330 days to californium-249, which is a strong emitter of ionizing alpha particles. This gradual transformation is an important consideration when studying the properties of elemental berkelium and its chemical compounds, since the formation of californium brings not only chemical contamination, but also free-radical effects and self-heating from the emitted alpha particles.
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Yttrium | Wikipedia audio article
 
28:22
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yttrium 00:01:17 1 Characteristics 00:01:27 1.1 Properties 00:02:38 1.2 Similarity to the lanthanides 00:04:00 1.3 Compounds and reactions 00:06:29 1.4 Isotopes and nucleosynthesis 00:09:18 2 History 00:10:19 3 Occurrence 00:12:46 3.1 Abundance 00:12:54 3.2 Production 00:15:00 4 Applications 00:18:58 4.1 Consumer 00:19:07 4.2 Garnets 00:20:32 4.3 Material enhancer 00:21:49 4.4 Medical 00:22:57 4.5 Superconductors 00:24:50 5 Precautions 00:26:39 6 See also 00:28:09 7 Notes Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39. It is a silvery-metallic transition metal chemically similar to the lanthanides and has often been classified as a "rare-earth element". Yttrium is almost always found in combination with lanthanide elements in rare-earth minerals, and is never found in nature as a free element. 89Y is the only stable isotope, and the only isotope found in the Earth's crust. In 1787, Carl Axel Arrhenius found a new mineral near Ytterby in Sweden and named it ytterbite, after the village. Johan Gadolin discovered yttrium's oxide in Arrhenius' sample in 1789, and Anders Gustaf Ekeberg named the new oxide yttria. Elemental yttrium was first isolated in 1828 by Friedrich Wöhler.The most important uses of yttrium are LEDs and phosphors, particularly the red phosphors in television set cathode ray tube (CRT) displays. Yttrium is also used in the production of electrodes, electrolytes, electronic filters, lasers, superconductors, various medical applications, and tracing various materials to enhance their properties. Yttrium has no known biological role. Exposure to yttrium compounds can cause lung disease in humans.
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Berkelium | Wikipedia audio article
 
42:48
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berkelium 00:02:21 1 Characteristics 00:02:31 1.1 Physical 00:04:52 1.2 Allotropes 00:06:39 1.3 Chemical 00:07:49 1.4 Isotopes 00:08:56 1.5 Occurrence 00:10:27 2 History 00:15:02 3 Synthesis and extraction 00:15:11 3.1 Preparation of isotopes 00:25:55 3.2 Separation 00:28:15 3.3 Bulk metal preparation 00:31:04 4 Compounds 00:31:13 4.1 Oxides 00:32:45 4.2 Halides 00:36:05 4.3 Other inorganic compounds 00:37:18 4.4 Organoberkelium compounds 00:38:23 5 Applications 00:39:42 6 Nuclear fuel cycle 00:41:07 7 Health issues Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. Listen on Google Assistant through Extra Audio: https://assistant.google.com/services/invoke/uid/0000001a130b3f91 Other Wikipedia audio articles at: https://www.youtube.com/results?search_query=wikipedia+tts Upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Berkelium is a transuranic radioactive chemical element with symbol Bk and atomic number 97. It is a member of the actinide and transuranium element series. It is named after the city of Berkeley, California, the location of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (then the University of California Radiation Laboratory) where it was discovered in December 1949. Berkelium was the fifth transuranium element discovered after neptunium, plutonium, curium and americium. The major isotope of berkelium, 249Bk, is synthesized in minute quantities in dedicated high-flux nuclear reactors, mainly at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Tennessee, USA, and at the Research Institute of Atomic Reactors in Dimitrovgrad, Russia. The production of the second-most important isotope 247Bk involves the irradiation of the rare isotope 244Cm with high-energy alpha particles. Just over one gram of berkelium has been produced in the United States since 1967. There is no practical application of berkelium outside scientific research which is mostly directed at the synthesis of heavier transuranic elements and transactinides. A 22 milligram batch of berkelium-249 was prepared during a 250-day irradiation period and then purified for a further 90 days at Oak Ridge in 2009. This sample was used to synthesize the new element tennessine for the first time in 2009 at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Russia, after it was bombarded with calcium-48 ions for 150 days. This was the culmination of the Russia–US collaboration on the synthesis of the heaviest elements on the periodic table. Berkelium is a soft, silvery-white, radioactive metal. The berkelium-249 isotope emits low-energy electrons and thus is relatively safe to handle. It decays with a half-life of 330 days to californium-249, which is a strong emitter of ionizing alpha particles. This gradual transformation is an important consideration when studying the properties of elemental berkelium and its chemical compounds, since the formation of californium brings not only chemical contamination, but also free-radical effects and self-heating from the emitted alpha particles.
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Ultraviolet | Wikipedia audio article | Wikipedia audio article
 
59:31
This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: Ultraviolet | Wikipedia audio article Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays. UV radiation is present in sunlight constituting about 10% of the total light output of the Sun. It is also produced by electric arcs and specialized lights, such as mercury-vapor lamps, tanning lamps, and black lights. Although long-wavelength ultraviolet is not considered an ionizing radiation because its photons lack the energy to ionize atoms, it can cause chemical reactions and causes many substances to glow or fluoresce. Consequently, the chemical and biological effects of UV are greater than simple heating effects, and many practical applications of UV radiation derive from its interactions with organic molecules. Suntan and sunburn are familiar effects of over-exposure of the skin to UV, along with higher risk of skin cancer. Living things on dry land would be severely damaged by ultraviolet radiation from the Sun if most of it were not filtered out by the Earth's atmosphere. More-energetic, shorter-wavelength "extreme" UV below 121 nm ionizes air so strongly that it is absorbed before it reaches the ground. Ultraviolet is also responsible for the formation of bone-strengthening vitamin D in most land vertebrates, including humans (specifically, UVB). The UV spectrum thus has effects both beneficial and harmful to human health. Ultraviolet rays are invisible to all humans, although insects, birds, and some mammals can see near-UV.
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