There is no time frame like 1 year or 6 months like that.You have to take medication,It may take from 6 months to 2 years for a lady to become pregnant.To conceive faster with PCOS one needs to get their hormone test done get your scans done,bring your BMI to normal ,exercise regualry ,cut down on fat and fried foods.Include fruits and vegetable.Along with these take medication to bring your hormonal levels to normal.
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One of the most frequent questions I get asked by patients is who often do my face. My face becomes very oily even after half an hour of washing it should I wash it again or they tell me that the wash their face again and again to keep their skin looking fresh but when you normally talk about skin and skin care we usually tell you to use your face wash to 2 or maximum 3 times a day why do we say not to wash face wash more often than that whatever face wash your using even though it is a soap free products it keeps tripping the skin of the normal oil barrier under skin barrier which the skin forms every day when you wash your face more and more often you are actually striping the skin of the protective elements at it makes work hard to make for example there is a barrier which is made by the skin this is containing ceramides some sebum so when you strip your skin of this protective barrier you actually harming the skin so some people might think skin is becoming more oily so let me wash it more often but what you are creating is when you wash your face more often, your skin actually creates more oil to protect itself and therefore your intern causing the skin to damage itself so the chances of breakout or whatever skin sensitivity that you already have actually increases when you wash your face more often so how do you do or how often do you wash your face I think you need to wash your face 2 times a day once you get up in the morning and once when you before go to bed. Yes some of us travel a lot in pollution and there will definitely be excuse if they want to wash face a third time but the third time stick to just plain water or use a very gentle soap free cleanser and then don't forget to immediately hydrate your skin without water containing or high uranic acid gel which seals your barrier and prevents your skin from getting excessively dry which could next lead to other complications such as excessively sensitive skin, dry skin and rashes.
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The face and exposed part of arms are usually much darker than the unexposed part of the body. Reason for this is as these are constantly exposed to light and pollution. The skin also get darker as it is toughening itself against the environment so this is a protective mechanism which the skin is doing. Nobody wants their face dark so it is very important that you use sunscreens regularly. When you use your sunscreens a dramatic change is not going to happen within few days or weeks, the pigmentation or the constitutional tone which went darker on your face is a cumulative exposure over years so the sunscreen which is a protective mechanism by itself cannot give you all the improvement. In the night you should start some good vitamin C creams which is good skin lightening agent and very safe, you can start using it every night or every alternative night which helps in lightening your skin. Other safe creams to use are glycholic acid creams which exfoliates skin gently use them once in a week. Don't ever be harsh with the pigmented areas of the skin, when skin is already dark and sensitized to the sun if you try doing procedures like bleach, scrubbing very often the skin is going to go darker because that is how skin protects itself by becoming thicker and going darker, avoid it and be gentle with your exfoliation. Scrub and do your glycolic creams once a week. Eat healthy, eat lot of bright colored vegetables and fruits as they contain carotene's as well as bioflavonoid's these are natural anti oxidants and natural lightening agents. Vitamin C being one of the most important ones protecting your skin against the sun. If you still feel that after doing all these for 2-3 months also your skin is dark then you need expert help that's when you see your dermatologist
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Precum is ejaculatory fluid men secrete just before they have the ejaculation.Sperms can be presented in precum. But they are very low or dead.But there is theoretical possibility for sperm in the precum. It.It depends upon individuals also. Some can have few sperms and some can have no sperms.It is very unlikely to get pregnant with precum. Precum is a fluid which cleans out the urethra and makes the environment of the urethra more conducive for the sperms.so that they are not killed while coming out through the urethra.When a person has had ejaculation and not passed urine after that and again has erection and ejaculation in that case life sperms can be present in the urethra because of the previous ejaculation and second time precum can have live sperms which can make you pregnant but the possibility is very low so better to protect your self by using condom if you want to prevent pregnancy.
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The common mistakes while washing the face is as follows.. 1) Use a better face wash rather than using a soap because soap is very hard and it's an alkali and that causes skin dryness. 2) Do not wash your face frequently, especially people who have oily skin. wash your face twice daily. 3) Do not use hot water to wash your face always use cold water. 4) Apply face wash start from the chin and move upwards and do the same downwards also. 5) Do not use scrubs, as a face wash daily. Use scrub weekly twice.
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The baby in the womb at about 5 months is about 200 to 500 grams. This is till the baby’s organs are getting formed. It is only after 5 months the baby starts putting on weight and that is when what we need to concentrate upon. For baby to put on weight for body building and muscle building we often advice a high protein diet. Whatever the body absorbs from natural sources is always 100%. So we would advice you to take a high protein diet consciously at every day. Try to incorporate some amount of protein in your food. Vegetarian sources of protein would be soya beans, soya milk, soya yogurt, chickpeas, rajma, double beans, kidney beans. Sprouts I would advice not to take raw, we probably steam it and add a little bit of lemon so that it adds a little bit of flavour. Along with that you have dals like sambar, orrdh dal, kichdi that we routinely make. Apart from that we have dry fruits like almonds, walnuts, dates. The non vegetarian sources of protein would include eggs so we would suggest two egg whites almost everyday. Apart from that you can have chicken soup, meat. You can include all these in your diet to increase body weight. Apart from these in your growth scan if you feel that the baby weight is less then we would add some medicated powders which will increase the baby weight.
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Its not true ,plucking of grey hair is not going to cause more grey hair. Colours also wont cause grey hair they just mask grey hair wont react with scalp.Grey are caused by inner problems.Have a healthy life style ,include protein ,exercise regularly to prevent grey hair.
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This is a very common things that people come asking. Embryos sticking on to the uterus is such a natural and a biological process. Such a complicated process involving a lot of intrinsic factors like the quality of the embryo the adhesion factors, the growth factors the genetic profiling of the uterus lining, the blood flow, the texture and ultimately the last thing that you have , the beauty is the dialogue which happens between the mother and the embryo over there. So there is nothing that is external that could have an influence on the uterus, is what I wish to say. There are people who ask me do you than that the embryos will fall out if I walk or if I do not take rest, if I walk fast or if I climb stairs. No, there is nothing like that. Every natural cycle when an embryo is formed inside the tubes and the embryo is pushed and transported back to the uterus? Does it fall out? We are continuing to do your routine activities, we do not even now that the embryo is formed and it has come to the uterus. Does the embryo fall out so easily? It doesn’t nature has a beautiful way of holding the embryo inside her. So these extremeous factors just do not have an impact.
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The first thing to do after a positive pregnancy test is to visit your gynaecologist, it is not a very good idea to keep on waiting and thinking that after 1 or 2 or 3 weeks I will go and see or test again and then see. As soon as the pregnancy test comes positive it is better to go and meet the doctor because they could be conditions where you might need to have some support from the doctor in form of medicines. Some pregnancies don't do well, some pregnancies land up in tubes which is the wrong location and they can be other medical issues which need to be sorted out as soon as you become pregnant. When you visit your gynaecologist always remember that you have to remember the date of the last period because all your dating of the pregnancy happens from that day the first day of the last period. Then you should come clean as far as the history is concerned do not hide anything from the doctor, whether you had any surgeries any other termination, any other problems, you have been taking some medicines for diabetes blood pressure, epilepsy all these have to be told very clearly because certain medicines are not allowed in pregnancy. In case you are on some medication say for epilepsy or something else on let's say blood pressure these can be changed to the safer alternatives which you can take during pregnancy. The other thing is that the folic acid has to be started soon after when you become pregnant in fact you should be taking it before you start planning. So if you are not on folic acid and you do not visit your doctor you are wasting that precious time sitting at home and not providing your baby with the adequate dose of folic acid. So as soon as you miss your periods and test positive it is important to go and get checked by the doctor and stick to the test that she prescribes.
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when you apply sunscreen right quantity is important.When you need to apply to whole face you need two to two and half Finger tip unit .When you apply sunscreen your face should be dry.
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White spots on the face are something called as p alba or polymorphous light eruptions. When we say p alba, they are dry patches on the skin which are ill defined. They are usually dry and scaly, that means they seem as if some powder is coming off it. This is seen in people who do not use mild face wash or moisturizers on the skin and in some people who are prone to allergic tendency like dust allergy , they are prone to p alba. Usually they will say that they had these patches right from childhood. Another is the polymorphous light eruptions, where there is a mild sun allergy. There is a mild irritation and redness of the skin when they go out in the sun. Both these conditions use a gentle soap free face wash, use of face wash which is nice and water based called as hyaluronicacid an use a broad spectrum sunscreen, use it every 3 months, whether you are indoors or outdoors. This will help to bring the problem down. Misuse of over the counter creams or fairness creams could give you patchy whiteness of the skin. This will not get better with the treatment unless you stop the treatment. If with this your white patch does not get better, then it is better to consult your dermatologist because it could be a vitiligo or a leucoderma. Stop using any home care products. Use the gentle face wash, sunscreen and moisturizers. It will resolve in 2 – 3 weeks. If it does not get better, then consult your dermatologist.
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Ask Doctors - Get Video Answers in HINDI Subscribe to - https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCS1y5nTRddMYnozjN9iw0mA for HINDI videos Pores on the skin is very important because it is through these pores that our skin breathes and expels the toxins out, but as we age or because of some underlying issues like hormonal imbalances or imbalance in the food that we are taking, or in excess smoking, the skin loss it natural elasticity giving rise to prominent or open pores, these open sores on the nose, check and chin can collect lot of dust and dirt and gets inflamed and outbreaks of acne, blackheads, hyperpigmentation is seen. So what we need to do is first check the reason underlying why these pores are open. We can tighten the skin and keep the pores as close as possible. So there are lot of tips that we undertake, but try to find out what is the reason, in case of diet we need to take a balanced diet, drink lot of water and keep your skin supple, there are various methods how we can keep our skin healthy, ash your face twice daily with warm or cold water. Do not use hot water on your face because it can get your skin cleared off the natural oil that is present. We need to wash atleast twice a day to get rid of the excess oil or the other cosmetics that we are using regularly, otherwise the clogged pores can give rise to breakouts. Once it is washed thoroughly, you need to tap it dry and start using egg whites. Egg white is a natural protein and this keeps your skin tight and thereby keep the pores also closer and rejuvenates the skin. Two or there times a week you can try Egg white. Egg white helps to keep your skin smooth and nourished. Multani mitti can be applied using plain water in cases of excessive oily skin or you can mix it with cows milk or coconut milk in case with people who have dry skin. Mutani mitti is a coolant and has a natural astringent which keeps the skin tighter and keeps the pores closed and cleanses off all the dust and dirt that is settled in the pores. Once it is slight dry you can wash it or do a gentle scrub, scrubbing also helps in exfoliating the skin and clears the skin off the dead cells. Take ice cubes wrap in a cloth and run it on your face. Doing this also helps to help to tighten the skin and keeps the pores as close as possible, instead of using plain ice as ice cubes, you can squeeze in lemon into the ice trays and freeze it. And wrap the lime water ice cubes and rub it on the face. This can be done on an everyday basis and this helps the skin to tighten up an also even before you apply the cosmetic so that these cosmetics will not enter your pores and clog it and give rise to outbreaks. This way you can maintain your skin clear and radiant.
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Irregular periods can be delay in the period or scanty bleeding or sometime delay and scanty bleeding both together, period once in 35 to 40 days, sometime periods with lots of blood flow, so all these things can be categorized into is irregular periods. Underlined pathological cases like diabetes, hypertension, PCOD, thyroid and the other things like smoking, alcohol, stress and vitamin deficiency even these may be the contributing factors for irregular periods. And what are the physiological time lady has an irregular period is min-arch and Menopause the starting of the period and the time when the periods are going to see that is the menopausal these are the timings naturally it is irregular. So the natural remedies for irregular periods all these remedies should be done for 3 months minimum and should not be done when you are bleeding on when you have periods. Basically start with lot of antioxidants, green fruits, green vegetables, and lots of antioxidants like colorful fruits are also you can have, you can have colorful capsicum, vegetables. A juice or a remedy that is mint, coriander, Palak, Amla, ginger, rock salt, lemon all mix together make a juice and have this juice daily one glass for 3 months. It helps in regularization of the periods. Second one is Turmeric tea, add turmeric to milk and turmeric to water and have it you can even mix some honey in it. Sesame and jaggery taken together for three months also helps in regularization of the periods. Eluvina pulp can be taken with sugar and honey, so these natural remedies will definitely help you to regularize your periods.
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Lots of girls and even young boys have taken to bleaching their skin in order to make the skin look brighter. How does the bleach works? Bleach is actually a chemical which depigments the hair on the skin. It is not doing so much to your skin or lightening the color of your skin. Every time you out, a chemical on the skin, you are damaging the outer layers of the skin. So to make the skin fairer or to make your skin look more glowy, and doing it every month, it is not a very good idea as these chemicals, can damage the outer layers of the skin. They can make the skin look dry. It makes the skin more prone for acne,pimples,pigmentation and especially if you do not take good care of your skin later, like a good use of a moisturizer, a good use of a sunscreen. If you neglect all that and if you have excessive sun exposure, then you will be setting your skin for long term skin damage. Instead if you have a problem which makes your skin look dark, on you r arms, on your face, then use a sunscreen regularly. Talk to your doctor, they will give you some safe skin lightening agents without any steroids or hydroquinone or which contain more of kojic acid, or azaelic acid and these can be used as a long term treatments on the face on the sun exposed areas of the body. To prevent the skin from going dark so that you do not have to do any harsh chemical treatments on your face every month.
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Almonds are nutritionally packed and should be taken regularly for maximum benefit. They are rich in healthy fats, protein, fiber, minerals such as zinc, calcium, magnesium etc. However to ensure that these nutrients are absorbed properly we have to take them in the soaked form overnight for about 8 to 12 hours, as they contain a compound called as tannins which are inhibitors, which inhibit the nutrient absorption. Apart from this, when the almonds are soaked they release an enzyme called as lipase, which helps in the digestion of fats, thereby resulting in a better digestion. Soaked almonds help in regulating blood pressure, diabetes and also helps in reducing your cholesterol levels. They are also rich in insoluble fibers. Thereby helps in preventing constipation. Also their folic acid level helps in maintaining a better nervous system and when consumed during pregnancy, helps in the good development of the fetus. Hence soaked almonds are much higher in terms of nutrient availability.
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There are many causes of dark circles under the eyes, days of stress and sleeplessness and working for hours on the computer and when you are not working on the computer youngsters are now staring at the mobile all this causes a tremendous amount of eye strain which manifest dark circle under the eyes. The other common causes are dehydration where you are not drinking enough water, anemia where there is enough less blood because of poor eating habit, thyroid disorders which is a hormonal imbalance which would also be looking at dark circles. Most commonly when a young person comes to me with dark circles the first questions that I will ask them is how many hours of sleep are you getting if they are getting adequate 8 hours of sleep, if they are not staring at a computer or at a TV or if they are not being hydrated enough I definitely want to know what is the hemoglobin what is the thyroid and are they eating healthy enough. In spite of all these things if they do have an allergy or a condition which their nose is always blocked that could also be causing a secondary hypo pigmentation of the eyes because the eye strain through the nose. So when your eyes nose is constantly stuffed or your nose is constantly blocked the eyes tend to look a little bit more puffy or dark. The conditions where we see a lot of dark circles is people using unnecessary harsh makeup remover or constantly rubbing their eyes because they having in any kind of allergy problems, so use a gently makeup remover and avoid rubbing your eyes instead moisturize your eyes very gently and very fatty movements not very hard rubbing moments so that the skin is very delicate in this area does not get stress. The most important thing is that if you have a hereditary history of dark circles if your parents has significant dark circles and if your brother or sister have dark circles, you might also be prone to having this dark circles and in this how do you identify that you have hereditary dark circles is that the upper eyelids also pigment when you have acquired dark circles that if you did not have dark circles when you're younger but you got them when you are older the upper eyelid does not get pigment at upper eyelid is free of pigmentation. So, how do you identify how do you treat all these dark circles I think the first and most important thing is find out why you are having a dark circles. Start eating regularly on time, drink plenty of water, take adequate rest in spite of it you feel that the dark circles are increasing then i think that it is time to go with a dermatologist to find out what is the cause of dark circles, we also see eyes under area is the first area in a body to show the aging changes so we see it coming up earlier and earlier we see premature aging in people because of stress, pollution and smoking habits, in this way I think that you have to realize that as soon as this eye area show changes that means the aging has already started, so it's like a warning so that you can start making a anti-aging changes which are mostly life style changes. They are not something that you have to take a medicine or product cream for that area. The third thing that I would like to tell you is a quick depth to under eye dark circle before you head out for the party is take a used green tea bag and keep it in the fridge don't throw it away and just for a party use the green tea bag as a mask on your under the area for at least 10 to 15 minutes the cooling of the green tea pack as well as the bio flavonoids which are there in the green tea act as antioxidants the lighting the dark circle as well as they take away the puffiness in the under area.
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Our hair is an indicator of health and vitality. It is also an indicator of youth. Nowadays because of the changing lifestyles and habits with increasing stress, increasing smoking in young people there is a lot of hair fall which causes the hair to lose its density. When we are talking about improving hair density things which we have to be immediately look at is the lifestyle. Make sure that you are eating enough quality of good quality proteins. Also include lot of fruits and vegetables in your diet to increase the vitamin content of your diet. If you have a strong family history of baldness in your parents, immediate relatives then you might be having a hormonal hair loss for which the treatment is a medicine called minoxidil. However minoxidil is a medicine and has to be prescribed by a dermatologist or a doctor who can examine you, make sure that you don’t have any concomitant medical conditions before they prescribe you these medicines. A lot of new peptide based medicines are now available to increase the density of the scalp. These are based on caffeine on capexil and these give you very good improvement without any side effects. These are applications on the scalp. Dermatologist is probably is the best person to guide you in these which molecule could help you the best. Taking a biotin supplement and taking food rich in iron become indispensable to quality of good health. If these treatments don’t work for you then you can always consider treatments such as platelet-rich plasma, dermaroller, low level laser therapy and mesotherapy to increase density of the scalp. Again please not try these at home. Your guide is better a professional dermatologist.
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Lifestyles have changed and women travel all over the world when they are pregnant. Flight travel is thought to be safe during pregnancy.. It also depends on the gestation of pregnancy. In the first three months, it is safe to travel, but we have to ensure that the pregnancy is in the uterus and not outside, i.e ectopic pregnancy. . It is also better to avoid flight travel during last 4 weeks of pregnancy, i.e after 36 weeks of pregnancy, it becomes slightly unsafe to travel by flight. From eight weeks to thirty six weeks, it is safe to travel by flight until and unless your doctor says No. The doctor can say No if you have a low lying placenta, any other complications that can land you in pre-term labor or if you have sickle cell anemia.. If its a short flight, get up after 30 or 45 minutes and talk a walk in the aircraft so that the blood does not clot into your legs. Keep yourselves well hydrated. avoid coffee and fizzy drinks during the flight. If its a long flight, please discuss with your doctor. she might put you on heparin which is an anti coagulant which will not allow the blood to clot into you legs. There are also stockings available these days which do not allow the blood to clot..
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Normally a females in a reproductive age, the ovary will produce an egg every month, is called ovulation. It is important to know when you ovulate. In a 28 day cycle, can ovulate between 11th to the 21st day. It is a myth that the ovulation happens on the 14th day. If your periods are irregular m it is very difficult to predict the day of your ovulation, there are certain signs to know that these are the time of you r ovulation. Just before ovulation, the vaginal discharge becomes a little excessive. if the secretion becomes a little sticky during ovulation. Take the fluid and stretch it between your hands, t forma strand that is a sign of ovulation. Sometimes there could be mastalgia or pain in the breasts, or pain in the lower abdomen. Or few drops of blood can be seen at the time of ovulation. Not all the symptoms will be there for everybody. It will be just one or few symptoms. BBT is Basic Bid Temperature. This is made as a graph when you wake up every day, as soon as you wake up you check your temperature. Continue checking tis for 3-4 months. There is a little rise from temperature when you ovulate, but it is not reliable. Ovulation kits are available. There is increase in the Leutinising Hormone just before ovulation. The most reliable in the ultrasound scanning. Do a follicular monitoring from the 8th day of the periods on every alternate day. When the follicle reaches 18 -20 mm, that means your egg is ready to come out. Normally the egg is active only for 24 hours in the body. Fortunately the sperms are alive once it is introduced into the uterus. If you are planning for a pregnancy, if you have sex one or 2 days before ovulation, still you can get pregnant. If you are planning for pregnancy you can continue to have sex for that week.
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Between the two, the contact lenses and the glasses, they are like alternatives. People used to glasses will prefer glasses and people used to contact lenses would prefer contact lenses. Each of them have their own advantages and disadvantages. Glasses have the advantage that you can take it off and put it on any time you want. There is the advantage that you never end up with infections. The disadvantage of glasses is that they give a distortion of figure at the edge of the glasses and these glasses sit on your nose and they can be a source of discomfort and ofcourse cosmetically speaking glasses may not be a good option. Whereas contact lenses have their own set of advantages and disadvantages. The contact lenses have the advantage that when you put it on to your eye it gives you the most natural vision possible, much better than what the glasses will be giving. There is no problem of glare which can be seen with the glasses. On the other hand you need to take very good care of contact lenses which you don’t need to do with glasses. Here you can take it off in the evening and put it on in the morning and you need to keep the contact lens solution to keep cleaning the contact lenses meticulously. So each have their own advantages and disadvantages. The choice between contact lenses and glasses would purely depend upon each individual to choose which advantage or disadvantage they give more importance to.
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This is one of the commonest question asked, after sexual activity there is increase in sperm leakage, could that be the reason why I am not able to conceive? The sperm leakage or a semen leakage occurs in all individuals whenever there is a sexual activity because the semen cannot enter into the cervical canal. The semen always leaks out but the sperms are actively motile, they move up through the uterus to reach the uterus and the fallopian tubes. Only precaution what the man has to do if she is planning a pregnancy is not to wash out the semen immediately after a sexual activity because water is toxic to the sperms and then lie down for sometime, say 10 – 15 minutes and then wipe out the secretions. So do not be bothered about sperm leakage, it can happen in all individuals.
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Polycystic ovarian disease is a disease in women where there are changes in the hormonal levels leading to overweight and irregular cycles. And patient has hyperinsulinemia and the patient is on metformin. So we cannot put the patient on metformin lifelong. So the lifelong treatment for Polycystic ovarian disease is diet and exercise. BMI has to be maintained between 18 to 25. BMI is weight in kgs, to height in meter square. So it has to be maintained. So the girl has to be counseled with diet and exercise. So do one to one and a half hours exercise daily and like gymming, aerobics and swimming, walking, jumping, and climbing. So the mode of exercise the girl has to take high protein diet like egg white, milk products, all types of dals, sprouts, pulses, non-veg pieces. No gravies, almonds, acrot has high proteins. The fruit which has high protein is guava. So high protein diet and daily means of exercise depending upon the BMI is very necessary to bring down a proper BMI for girl with PCOS.
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Whenever there is pain radiating from the left side of the chest, and extending over to the left arm, there is possibility of cardiac issue and the second ,most important problem is a cervical problem. Even a cervical problem can have pain radiating down to the chest ad down to the arm. Other issues are like hyperacidity like in Irritable Bowel Syndrome, Gastritis, Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease, which is another reason why this symptoms can develop. When the pain radiates to the arm, rule out cardiac issues. If the pain is less than 5 minutes and it disappears after that, it could be angina pectora, which is relieved by sublingual tablets like sorbitrate. The other reason why you can have this kind of pain is the real heart attack. If you have severe pain with profuse sweating, vomiting and you have noticed that patients develop these symptoms after having food, heavy meal, then probably it is a heart attck.it does not come down after 15 minutes. It does not get relieved with any tablets.so then it requires medical intervention. Whereas pain related to the cervical, radiating down to the chest, or the arm, is a neurological pain, and it is usually caused by some bad posture like I had a patient who was regularly on the laptop, and a teacher who is looking up and developed this. So this way symptoms are there. There are also symptoms like Irritable Bowel Syndrome, then the gastritis can cause referred pain down to the arm.
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Oral health during pregnancy is very important because change in hormones leads to dental diseases. so regular visits are necessary during pregnancy.dental cleanings during pregnancy are also very safe.second trimester is the perfect time for dental treatments like crowns.root canal etc.
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The causes are mainly emotional stress or acid reflux. So if you control these two effectively, then definitely this lump or symptoms of lump in the throat will disappear quickly. Controlling the emotional stresses are in our hands whereas if there is significant acidity, then we can definitely take the help of medicine. Some simple medicine like omeprazole or pantaprazole can be used regularly for upto 4 to 6 weeks we give. Along with reducing the spice content, the masala content in your food and making sure that your food habits are regular. Consuming a lot of liquids in general will again help. Curd is one of our prime antiacidic measures where it is the best naturally occurring neutralizer for the acid in the stomach. So if you are able to consume a lot of curd, in any form, then it is definitely beneficial. Making sure that you eat on time so that the acid that is produced during three the bulk meal times is effectively neutralized and it doesn’t come into the chest causing the lump sensation in the throat and not thinking about it and not looking for the symptom. Not thinking about it or not looking for the symptom like generally when we have a lump sensation in the throat, we tend to swallow our own saliva regularly to see if that sensation is still persisting. That actually worsens the situation. Along with that when you are swallowing empty, just the saliva, you are going to take in a lot of air along with it which will bloat the stomach eventually resulting in acidity and when the gas that you have swallowed comes out, like in the form of burp, it tends to carry a bit of acid with it again causing the acid into the food pipe, again worsening the symptom. So please do not look for the symptom, just ignore it. Try to swallow without any food material in the mouth, then these symptoms can be reduced effectively.
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Basic hormone which is required to say that a girl is pregnant is HCG human chorionic gonadotrophin so when HCG is positive and that is when we say pregnancy, basically HCG positive can be seen on in the blood and in the urine in the blood anything about 5 units is pregnancy, in the urine anything about 25 units can be seen. So a urine pregnancy test is expected to be positive when the cycles a regular to be 2 weeks after the intercourse. So if you had sex today 2 weeks from today during pregnancy test is supposed to be positive, but a negative urine test doesn't mean that it is always negative positive is positive but a negative doesn't mean because if after the egg is released it can stay for 24 hours to 48 hours and the sperm can stay to 72 hours rarely up to 7 days also. So a delayed pregnancy can still show positive during pregnancy test is usually positive 2 week from intercourse and a blood test can be positive a little earlier maybe 11, 12 or 13 day your blood test can be positive.
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Cervical Cerclage, is one way to prevent a pre-term delivery. This only means, the cervix, the neck or mouth of the uterus, is undergoing a procedure called Cerclage. Cerclage is nothing but a stitch. A purse string suture like the village women carry, or like a gunny bag tied at the neck with a thread, such that whatever is in the bag doesn't come out. Same principles are applied as there are some women who have a condition called Cervical Insufficiency or Cervical Incompetency, because cervix is not strong enough. The moment woman crosses the 3rd month, usually 1 in about 5000, have a weak cervix, in the 5th or 6th month usually the body lets the pregnancy out in an untimely manner. Once you've documented this, the next pregnancy, may be in 4th month, a suture or tightening of the uterus can be done, such that it doesn't allow baby to come out in untimely fashion. It will be cut in the 9th month as you go through the labour pain
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A 3 -4 years old child should be using atleast 3 -4 word sentences and his sentences should be long and you should be able to have conversation of atleast 3 – 4 turns with your child. Now these sentences should not only have nouns, but also action words such as hug or jump. It should also have adjectives like slow, fast, near and a 3-4 year old child will also be using pronouns like I, my, she and if a child who I gone to the market, a 3 -4 year old child will say “I went to the market today” and not “I go market”, which is what maybe what a 2 to 2 and a half year old child would say. In terms of quality of speech, a 4 year old will be very clear. he would be able to say most of the sounds like ”pa”, “ma”, “ba”, “ka”, “ga”, “sa” and “sha”. If the child is 75% intelligible, then he doesn’t need any speech therapy, but at the same time, if the child is not very clear by 4 years of age, then you need to meet a speech language pathologist to deicide the next step which is to be taken.
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Low amniotic fluid is a condition in which the volume of amniotic fluid in the womb goes down. It is denoted by AFI (amniotic fluid index) which is below 8cms. It is seen in 2nd and 3rd trimester scan, and when it is diagnosed, we look into the reasons and try and treat those reasons so that it can remain whatever level it is or at least increase a bit. There is no sure method of increasing the amniotic fluid, but there are some time tested methods which are known to bring it to some considerably good levels. So that when it is lower than 8cms, we try and ask the mother to 1. Take proper rest, 2. Good nutrition which is rich in proteins, which are known to increase amniotic fluids. 3. Some amino acid preparations, which the lady can take by mouth or by IV infusions. 4. She can be prescribed some blood thinners also, which are again known to increase the amniotic fluids. 5. Drinking plenty of water and liquids which are permissible as suggested by the doctor Another reason which could cause low amniotic fluid levels, it can be of fetal origin. 1. It is seen in scan if the fetal kidneys are functioning properly, sometimes kidneys might be there, but they might not be functioning properly, sometimes fetus might have one missing kidney. 2. Lack of functioning of fetal urinary bladder, there may be some block, under these circumstances you're guided to go to a pediatric surgeon (who is a pediatric urologist), or go to an expert in fetal medicine, who can treat these conditions in utero. Another method to treat this is, putting saline in the amniotic sack through the IV line (like how we give for IV infusion). There might be chances of complications like infections, or precipitating the labour. We can deliver the baby when it is mature enough to survive outside the womb.
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Berberium aquifolium is the scientific name of mountain grapes. This is used for the specific treatment of acne and various other skin problems.it is usually used in dilution, were 10 drops of the extract of this medicine is mixed with half a glass of water and this solution is used to wash the face. The same proportion can be used to be ingested, that is taken inside also. 10 drops in half a glass of water, in 2 -3 times a day. This helps to improve the complexion of the skin, helps to clear the acne marks, and reduce the acne. So external and internally it can be used. This is not the only medicine which can be used, this is one of the medicines that can be used.
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Platelets are small cells in the body which help the blood to clot. There are three types of cells, red cells, white cells and platelets in the cells. These blood cells called platelets help the blood to clot. Whenever we have a small cut, it helps the blood to clot. The platelets are instrumental in forming the clot. Whenever the platelet count goes down, there is a risk of bleeding, but then again, people have a lot of myths about platelets though the normal platelet count is one lakh fifty thousand, to four lakh fifty thousand, unless and until the platelet count falls to less than 20000 or 10000. There will not be any risk of significant internal bleeding. The most common cause if low platelet count, nowadays we see is due to dengue fever. But apart from infections. The most common cause of low platelet count Is immune thrombocytopenia where our own immunity destroys our platelets. So we give medicines to suppress the immunity and to prevent the platelet destruction. That condition is called as ITP or immune thrombocytopenia. In ITP, the goal of treatment is to keep the platelet count at a safe level, which is anywhere more than 30000. The dictum of treatment in ITP is do not treat the platelet counts, treat the symptoms.
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Ankle fractures and sprain are two different entities. Ankle injuries are one of the common injuries in orthopaedics because as you walk you may just twist your ankle that can lead to injury it can be a sprain or a fracture. A sprain is an injury to the ligament which is a connective tissue connecting two bones which forms a join. When this gets injured we call it a sprain. Bone which is connecting breaks we call it a fracture. There are two different entities which can happen for a single type of injury example when you're walking ankle might just twist and have a fall, this might either lead to a ligament injury or a bone injury which is a sprain or a fracture. Depending on your injury accordingly will be the recovering time. A sprain generally takes 3-5 weeks to heal at the end of 6 weeks you will be able to walk properly. Total recovery period meaning internal healing may take another 6 weeks so total for about to 2-3 months it will heal completely. If there is a fracture it will take longer time to heal because a bone to bone healing or union will take a longer time to recover. So the healing period is minimum 6-8 weeks and further recovery will be one and half to two months to get complete movement to do all your activities. A fracture may take 4 months to heal while sprain takes 2-3 months for complete recovery.
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There will be an increase in nausea and vomiting during week eight, nine or ten. Increase in tiredness is also seen. You will also see increased back ache during this time. The pregnancy or uterine hormones are meant to relax the uterus and in doing that, the joints are also relaxed. Breast tenderness, frequent urination, loss of appetite will continue. You have to eat every two to three hours. You will also feel feverish and there will be some tummy cramps.
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Heel pain is a very common problem mostly in females compared to me. It will be early morning pain, like you sleep in the night and wake up in the morning , you have a pain and you walk for few steps, 8 – 10 steps, then it gets better. The Same thing may happen when you sit for half an hour and get up. You may get, you may get pain. Again you take few steps, 8 – 10 steps, then your pain will go off. This condition is grouped into a condition called plantar fasciitis, also called as heel pain. Most of the times, there are no causes for this, it just happens like that. Over time, there is a heel pad fat, between the bone and the skin, which will get flattened or worn off. When it gets worn off, the bone will start taking more load. This is the commonest cause. The other one is, there is a tissue called fascia, which connects the heel one to the toes. The plantar fascia from the heel to the toe, it can get tightened, also giving rise to this pain. It happens due to multiple reasons, like rheumatoid arthritis, uric acid problems leading to gout and gout related or gout type of arthritis. Here are more types of arthritis which can lead to pain, but most times the reason is unknown.it can be an old injury like a stone or a thorn which has pricked you. The stone would have come out, but the fat part is injured, leading to long term pain. Sometimes the infection can also lead to pain. How to manage this? An easier way is by exercises, stretching of the plantar fascia, that is stretching of the foot. Secondly wearing soft footwear. Microcellular rubber, microcellular polymer slippers are available. There is silicone heel pad. For people wearing shoes can use the silicon cup inside the shoes and that will also help. Sometimes with all this pain doesn’t come down, give pain killers and do physical therapies in the form of ultrasonic massages. If this doesn’t work, give local injections with steroids. With one injection, more than 70 – 80 % will get relief. If it doesn’t help, then we have to operate and clear the heel. So the pressure on the heel and then the pain also comes down.
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Pre diabetes is a condition where the patient is finding the blood sugar is somewhere in the borderline and he has the few symptoms of Diabetes, sugar is not high enough to call it is diabetic like for example many people do fake symptoms like they are either feeling too hungry, to thirsty or they have to go for urination very frequently but when check the blood sugar it is not that high also to call it diabetes. Normally fasting blood sugar of 100 to 125 is considered as the range for prediabetes and when the value is higher than that then only they categorised as diabetes, same way at the HbA1c test which gives an average of 3 months in that the value of 5.7 persons to 6.4 % is considered as pre diabetic, so whenever the values are like this and you find that the patient has symptoms we usually categorised as pre diabetes and prediabetes is just kind of a warning for the patient that you are heading towards diabetes. So you need to do something about this particular condition. This is the stage where the patient can definitely correct himself and thus prevent himself from developing into a full-fledged diabetic patient. So for this he has to take care of certain things and they surely reversible and surely curable, like for example the most common reason why people develop this kind of symptoms is because of the bad lifestyle either they are not exercising, they not eating the right kind of food which is rich in fibre or they don't have enough sleep, there too stressed out these are the most common reasons. So if you correct these three four things in your life style either eat well, exercise well, sleep well and cut down your stress with simple relaxation technique may be Yoga, Pranayama all this kind of techniques. Most of the patients do find that the blood sugar tips they don't need medicine sometimes but in certain patient this may be medical intervention is needed especially where this is strong family history, when there is strong family history your pre diabetes status is a little things which you should take care about because most of the Patience is a family history can head towards diabetes, so this extra care will diet, exercise and de-stressing all that is important, along with that certain homeopathic medicine also can be combined, so that they can be completely out of diabetes. So I don’t think that should be any problem that if you take care of your lifestyle and diet.
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CMV IgG at 12 weeks is one of the days we do tox titre i.e. toxoplasma, cytomegalovirus, rubella and herpes simplex virus. IgG indicates the past infection, IgM indicates the present infection. If you have CMV IgG positive at 12 weeks we need to find out tthe titre. If the titre is within normal limits then we need not worry at all. But if the titre is four fold increased then we have to do the repeat test again after 4 weeks to see whether the titre is increasing or not. Then again at 12 weeks we do one test called which includes beta HCG i.e. Human Chorionic Gonadotrophin and PAPA test i.e. Pregnancy Associated Plasma Proteins. If you have high levels of HCG and low levels of PAPA it is not good and indicates that baby has some mental disorders like down syndrome. But we do not rely on one test. We have to do different tests like amniocenetesis to rule out the chromosomal anomalies. So you have to visit your doctor and find out what are the other tests we can do to rule out the Downs syndrome.
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If Your office is around 15 to 20 km ,it is allowed to travel by bus.If you are worried by jerks ,it is fine .The baby is in a bag of water which generally absorbs all the jerks.While you are travelling by bus make sure you are carrying something to eat.And don't stand for a long time if you don't find a seat.Because the blood starts to pool into your legs and very soon dizziness can come.So keep on shuffling your legs.so that blood keeps on circulating and BP will not fall.Now for long distances like 300 to 400 km ,better to take a car or train.In bus rest rooms will be difficult to find and you will be confined to your seat.You can also have a back ache.So for long distances take a Train or car.
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In a woman with known hypothyroidism, and on medication for the same, pregnancy should be planned beforehand, abnormally high thyroid TSH levels can cause difficulty in conceiving, even if the conception occurs, it can lead to miscarriage and abnormalities in the fetus. So the pregnancy should be planned in advance. Before planning pregnancy, thyroid profile should be done, and TSH levels should be adjusted in such a way that it falls within the normal levels for pregnancy. Thyroid dose may usually be the same or even increased before planning a pregnancy. For example, if someone is on Thyronorm 50mg before pregnancy, during pregnancy it may be increased to about 62.5 or 75 according to the thyroid levels, and it usually continued throughout the pregnancy, it can be stopped depending on the TSH levels after the delivery. And should be thereafter checked from time to time.
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Basically, Polycystic Ovary is an ovulation, and the hyperinsulinemia. So, basically, most of the cycles in a polycystic ovary, there is no formation of the egg, there is no ovulation happening. So, now here the patient has already taken 3 cycles of oral contraceptive pills, so hormones have already been taken. So, we hope that the patient is having a good cycle or hormonal levels, and post hormone she is on metformin. The germ of metformin is into increase the chances of ovulation, decrease hyperinsulinemia, decrease hyperandrogenism. Basically, it increases the level of ovulation for PCOD patients. So, now this patient who is on pills for 3 months have got a regular cycle, following which patient is on metformin, so the chances of pregnancy coming up quite early is definitely there, but, no fix dates can be told 1, 2, 3 months that metformin can cause. But, Metformin definitely increases chances of ovulation and pregnancy.
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"Amniotic fluid index or AFI is measurement of Amniotic fluid during pregnancy in the womb. It is a measurement which is taken by sinologist and it is given usually in millimetres or Centimetres. The normal range of amniotic fluid index or AFI is 8 to 18 centimetre . It is measure by sinologist when you go for your check-ups and it is very good Indicator of fatal indicates wellbeing and healthy pregnancy. The AFI is measured by dividing the uterus into 4 quadrants, in each quadrant a clear pocket of amniotic fluid is seen and measured vertically. Clear amniotic fluid pocket means there should not be any fatal parts or umbilical card in that area so we get whatever is the fluid as a correct measurement. Then all the four major means are added on and the sum is given to you as amniotic fluid index. There are two ways of denoting these index, one is we can just tell the measurement in centimetres saying that it is 5, 6, 10 or 12 or we give some charts In which the percentile is mentioned. In between the percentile of amniotic fluid and index fall below 5 percentile or 5 centimetre is not good, between 8 and 18 is good which is called as normal AFI. Below 8 centimetres we call it as oligoamnios and above 18 Centimetres. When the fluid index is at around about 22 to 21 we call it has polyhydramnios. Reasons for hydro, polyhydromnios and oligoamnios are very different. In oligoamnios there are some factors which are related to mother as improper nutrition, Lifestyle, hypertension during pregnancy, some are placenta indication which are responsible for oligoamnios like poor functioning of placenta and some of it indicates which can be a improper formation of urine in fatal body because of lack of one kidney or poor function of one kidney or some block in the urinary bladder of the fittest so these are the reasons what we normally get when we see oligoamnios. Another biggest reason is PROM premature rupture of membranes, normally gestational diabetes in mother is one of the major reasons for polyamines . So when you go for your routine check up with glaciologist they seen] to AFI and feel very comfortable when it fall in the normal range otherwise and advise you what is to be done to keep it under normal range and keep it in safe limit. "
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First of all this is very distressing and stressful for you. Many people after an exposure go through a very traumatic experience because it is not very easy to talk about. There are multiple emotions including guilt, shame, stigma, and a sense of helplessness. Also the possibility of being infected with HIV is scary. Anyone in this position is likely to spend a lot of time seeking information on the internet and also talking to a number of people who may not be experts in this, what this does is people receive a lot of information, some of which is dependable and reliable and some of which is not. This often results in a situation where the fear of HIV takes over one’s life and affects one’s ability to function at work, be economically productive, maintain healthy relationships and experience a sense of wellbeing in general, especially one also has a history of previous anxiety, depression, obsessive compulsive disorder. One is particularly prone to experience something like this. If you seek a team that has HIV specialists and who works closely with a psychologist, you can be helped, this might require the HIV doctor and the psychologist to work what you and formulate a personalised plan for you whereby you get some training in terms of what tour fears are , what the fears are , how you can recognize the triggers, how you can mitigate the negative emotional impact of what you are experiencing and a few skills which enable you to move on and actually come to believe that you do not have HIV and come back to feel the more sense of well being and being more productive work and in your relationships. So I would encourage you to speak to an HIV team that has both and HIV doctor and a psychologist to hep you with this.
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A slap near the ear or around the ear can actually increase the air pressure inside the ear canal. Ear canal is a tube that connect the outer ear to the ear drum. The canal is surrounded by bone and at the end of it you have paper thickness eardrum. So if the slap is too tight and the air pressure is increased tremendously, the only soft part of the ear canal, that is the ear drum can rupture. That is why the person may feel pain inside the ear, maybe some blood stained discharge and compromise in hearing capability. So it has to be investigated. first confirm the presence of rupture or hole in the ear drum by looking at this by having got it checked by an ENT specialist or by doing a hearing test to find out the amount of loss because if it is only a hole in the ear drum, the loss is about 20 to 40%, whereas if there is further hard blow, then there is a chance that the oscicles, the bones inside the ear can get dislodged and the hearing loss can be little more than 60 decibels. So if we suspect a higher loss, then the treatment differs, whereas if it is only a hole in the eardrum, we can just keep the ears dry and what it out over the next couple of months the hole should heal by itself in most cases. If the hole is too big that is leading to almost 40 – 50% of hearing loss, where the doctor feels that the healing cannot happen by itself, then surgery may be indicated or in other cases where the oscicles or the bones are dislocated, there has to be a surgery done to look at the damage and repair whatever the oscicular change or defect is there along with closing the hole in the ear drum, to get the hearing back. Otherwise if it is only a simple hole and the loss is only about 20 to 40%, then be rest assured that the haling will happen by itself. The only thing, the ear should never get wet during this period of healing. That means while taking bath, there should be a ear plug placed to prevent any kind of moisture going inside, please do not use any ear drops or oil in the ear. No need to clean the ear regularly even if there are blood clots or a bit of wax in the ear. It doesn’t matter. Just keep the ears dry and wait it out and have a periodic checkup with your ENT doctor, the hole will heal by itself.
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Duodenal ulcer is a wound at the opening of the small intestine, which is caused due to some infections, some bacterial infections and some kind of medication like aspirin and ibuprofen. So when you have this ulcer, you have to limit your spice and oily foods you have to avoid. You have to take mild foods without spices and without much oil like chapattis with home prepared fresh curd, dals, some boiled vegetates with very little spices and khichdis, pongals and soups and warm water will also be helpful, some juices, all the bled foods which are available. You have to restrict any caffeine, tea coffee etc and pepper, chillies which cause the stomach to irritate and also alcohol. Alcohol does not allow the proper healing of the intestine. So you have to avoid alcohol. So take warm water during the whole day in sips and I also give some nutritional therapeutic treatment. I give some kind of supplements which help in duodenal ulcer in fats healing. Something like Vitamin B complex, and combined with Omega 3 essential fatty acids and some others depending on the need of the person. Eating smaller meals at shorter intervals also would help you by not stretching your stomach too much and also keeping a food diary. Also you can see which foods irritate you. So these tips will help you. So stay healthy.
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Increasing the height in boys in their early twenties is possible to an extent but again it is depending on the genes or the genetic factors in the background of the patient. Height is determined by a gene which is there any particular person. Usually in boys the bones ossify by 21 years and after the bones ossified then it is very difficult to increase the height, so whatever height gain you have to do, you have to do it before 21, some patients you ever seen that even after 25 years that your ossification happens might be little slow in some people. So maybe 21 years or sometimes even after 25 years you may be able to do something with regard to height. So to increase the height the most common thing that anybody would you think of it is to eat well, sleep well, it is noticed that there is a research done where they say that in it everyday morning even you can check it yourself when you wake up in the morning check your height, when you go to bed check your height, your height would be a few centimetres more in the morning when you wake up that is because the body would be stressed, the vertebrae would a aligned and so that is a slight increase in height so the poster of the person is again very important in deciding how your vertebrae is a aligned and so your height can be up by few centimetres. Sleep well and body heals during sleep, if you sleep well 8 hours minimum it helps the body to grow well, eat well a nutritious diet especially high protein diet, rich in calcium, can also help you to grow taller, drink lots of water and minimum intake of 3 litre and if possible more than that should be there so that your body is toxins are flashed out and it is becomes easier for body to absorb the nutrients and so the growth also happen subsequently. Again everybody knows that we need to exercise, exercise is the most common things which can help you to grow taller and the very easy thing is that catch on do something hang. So when your body stretches the chances of your height increasing is a bit higher, your bones can grow longer because that is time when ossification is not yet happened, so as the muscle stretch, the pulling happens and so the traction so the bone grow easily longer. So stretching exercises are the best exercises, running, jogging, cycling, and swimming all these things are also very good to improve on your height. There are homeopathic medicines which can help you to increase height and this should be started preferably in your between your 15 to 20 years of age and usually the best time to work out on your height is between 15 to 20 years. Excellent homeopathic remedies are there which can improve your height and see that you grow a little more than what you would otherwise be like for example calcarea phos, symphytum, arnica these are some of the medicines which can help you to grow taller Oleum jecoris aselli is another medicine this also helps you to grow taller. If you want to grow taller see to it that you have adequate rest and you need to sleep well don't watch your TV in the night and sit instead sleep before 12 and wake up early, early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy wealthy and wise.
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Symptoms will be knee pain,swelling in the knee and difficulty in walking and difficulty in bending.This things also happen if other ligaments also get injured.Meniscus injury also shows these symptoms.If ACL only gets injured symptoms intensity will be less.If ACL gets injured along with other parts of the knee symptoms will severe.
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Dry cough is more frequent in adults rather than in children. Dry cough which keeps recurring needs to be investigated on few fronts. The common causes of dry cough which keeps recurring are subclinical Sinusitis that is Sinusitis which is not very evident in the form of nose block, running nose, headache, but the present purely with dry cough mainly due to what is called as a post nasal drip, that is the secretions vichar from the sinuses day trip along the floor of the Sinus into the throat and irritate the throat ans hence cause dry cough. And this gets accentuated or worsen when the patient lies down because in that position the Trickle becomes a little bit more than when they are in there are in up right positions. The Other causes of dry cough which can recover very early forms of bronchial asthma for a week or somebody who has an allergy can have a broncos pason every now and then and they can have dry cough. This typically present early in the morning for a late in the evening and is quite common in a city like Bangalore where allergies are quite common and is very prevalent. the other causes of dry cough can be what is called as the tropical eosinophilia now if somebody presence was with more than 15 days or 3 weeks of cough we do recommend that you get a blood test done mainly to rule out this particular entity, which is a very common in a country like India which is secondary to certain worm infestations. Now the most common cause of dry cough that encounter in my practice in the age group of a between 25 and 40 years of age is because of a condition called as Acid Reflux, today's world most people they work in very stressed out environments, they get up very early in the morning go to sleep very late in the night and have a very hectic life schedule. So they don't send to eat food which is from home but tend to eat outside food like junk food, tend to eat whatever food is available to them at that point of time. Now this along with a hectic life schedule as well as stress can precipitate what is called gastroesophageal Reflux disease in people and when this happened as it turns to come up to the throat irritate the junction of the food Pipe and the windpipe and then result in dry cough.
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Cataract surgery can be done through several methods. The most basic method is called as the ECCE or Extra Capsular Cataract Extraction. In Extra Capsular Cataract Extraction, which is an age old method. The surgery is done using an incision for roughly about 8 mm to 9 mm large. The next advancement in the cataract surgery happened with the introduction of small incision cataract surgeries. In the small incision cataract surgeries, the wound size is shrunk to nearly about anything between 6mm to 6.5 mm. Here the cataract is taken in toto, that’s is the whole of the cataract is bisected into two pieces or the whole cataract is removed at one single shot. In the small incision cataract surgery, there are no sutures which are usually put. However the surgery will have to be done by giving an injection around the eye. The most recent advancement in don’t the cataract surgery is a method called as Phacoemulsification. in Phacoemulsification it is rather the sound energy which is used in contrary to the popular perception of a laser being used here. So a sound energy causes implosions within the cataract. Implosions are opposites of explosions which explode outside. Implosions are explosion which happen within the substance of the cataract. So when you direct a sound beam towards a cataract, there will be small implosion which keep happening within the cataract and this liquefies the cataract and this liquefied cataract is eventually sucked out and in its place an intraocular lens which is folded and is inserted to the eye. The size of the incision required for a Phacoemulsification is anything between 1.2 mm to 2.8 mmm which is extremely small. We do have recent lenses which fit in just with about 1 to 1.2 mm and this kind of surgery we call it as Micro Incision cataract surgery. Of late there has been a new advent in the cataract surgery and this cataract surgery is called as a femto cataract surgery. Femto cataract surgery is basically more or less the same as a Phacoemulsification. Only a couple of steps we do in the regular Phacoemulsificationm, they are done by laser, experts today believe femto cataract surgery has no advantages over the Phacoemulsification and on the contrary it is a disadvantage as the cost of the femto cataract surgery, is abnormally high and it is not a value for money. The best method to do a cataract surgery would be to do a Phacoemulsification by a Micro Incision cataract surgery and a foldable intraocular lens.
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Schizophrenia is one of the common mental disorders and it is a serious psychotic disorders, mostly chronic and takes a toll on not only the individuals, but also on the family members who are the primary caretakers. Earlier Schizophrenic patients used to be metalized and taken away from their home and put in centers with very little contact with the outside world. However this has changed, schizophrenics can be treated at home with proper guidelines given to the care takes. No doubt it is very stressful to have a schizophrenic at home, but sometimes it is important for the caretaker sand the family members how they can take care of the person in addition to help themselves. Unless one is emotionally strong enough, they cannot help the weaker patient. So first have compassion on the mentally ill person. He or she did not ask for that affliction on himself and it is a combination of neurological, biological, social, genetic, psychological factors that have bought this disorder on the person. Secondly educate about this illness, a lot of misconceptions are there that the person may be extremely violent, they may pose a threat for the other family members or neighbours, and may be a poor role model for other family members, it may be true but accept them as family members and see all this dysfunctional behavior and can be contained very well with present generation of medication, treatment and psychotherapy. So there is no need to fear having a mentally ill patient. One should look at these mentally ill patients with compassion and with cheerfulness. After educating yourself well about the disease, you do well to look at all the various resources because the patient will not seek the professional help, it is you who have to see where is the best professional help you can afford, in your community , in your family you can seek. One needs to have realistic expectations about the schizophrenics course of illness because it can wax and wane at regular intervals at hourly basis, yearly basis, monthly basis. Don’t forget to be part of the treatment. Talk to the doctor, the psychologist, the psychiatrist, the social worker to find out what you could do, when to take the medications, when to take, other lifestyle modifications, that is in exercise, in diet, in family support, so you will have a good acceptance and leading to a healthy and harmonious family at home.
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Baby’s head is not engaged by 37 weeks and you are worried. So basically what engagement mean is there is a bony pelvis and the baby’s head has to drop or fix into it. So that makes it kind of more likely for you to have a normal delivery. but in case your baby; head is not engaged by 37 weeks, it also depends on which pregnancy it is .In first pregnancy it is more important for the head to get engaged. In second pregnancy it is not necessary for the head to get engaged at 37 weeks because with the labor pains, the head can come down. But if it is your first pregnancy, and the head is not engaged, we can till wait and watch. It is not necessary that by 37th week, all pregnant ladies the head has to be engaged. With time the engagement can happen at the end of 38th or 39thh week. So until and unless there is another condition which warrants you to have early delivery, we can wait upto your due date, whenever you go into labour or occasionally when you are postdated also. As far as what you can do, it is not in your hands, generally be active, continue to do exercises what have been taught in the antenatal classes, but apart from that not much can be done because this is an internal process and the bay and the body decides how this will be done.
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