Peano-HASEL actuators: Muscle-mimetic, electrohydraulic transducers that linearly contract on activation. Nicholas Kellaris et al (2018), Science Robotics https://doi.org/10.1126/scirobotics.aar3276 Soft robotic systems are well suited to unstructured, dynamic tasks and environments, owing to their ability to adapt and conform without damaging themselves or their surroundings. These abilities are crucial in areas such as human-robot interaction. Soft robotic systems are currently limited by the soft actuators that power them. To date, most soft actuators are based on pneumatics or shape-memory alloys, which have issues with efficiency, response speed, and portability. Dielectric elastomer actuators (DEAs) are controlled and powered electrically and excel with muscle-like actuation, but they typically require a rigid frame and prestretch to perform effectively. In addition, DEAs require complex stacks or structures to achieve linear contraction modes. We present a class of soft electrohydraulic transducers, termed Peano-HASEL (hydraulically amplified self-healing electrostatic) actuators, that combine the strengths of fluidic actuators and electrostatic actuators, while addressing many of their issues. These actuators use both electrostatic and hydraulic principles to linearly contract on application of voltage in a muscle-like fashion, without rigid frames, prestretch, or stacked configurations. We fabricated these actuators using a facile heat-sealing method with inexpensive commercially available materials. These prototypical devices demonstrated controllable linear contraction up to 10%, a strain rate of 900% per second, actuation at 50 hertz, and the ability to lift more than 200 times their weight. In addition, these actuators featured characteristics such as high optical transparency and the ability to self-sense their deformation state. Hence, this class of actuators demonstrates promise for applications such as active prostheses, medical and industrial automation, and autonomous robotic devices.
Просмотров: 6947 ScienceVio
Importance of a species’ socioecology: Wolves outperform dogs in a conspecific cooperation task. Sarah Marshall-Pescini et al (2017), PNAS https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1709027114 A number of domestication hypotheses suggest that dogs have acquired a more tolerant temperament than wolves, promoting cooperative interactions with humans and conspecifics. This selection process has been proposed to resemble the one responsible for our own greater cooperative inclinations in comparison with our closest living relatives. However, the socioecology of wolves and dogs, with the former relying more heavily on cooperative activities, predicts that at least with conspecifics, wolves should cooperate better than dogs. Here we tested similarly raised wolves and dogs in a cooperative string-pulling task with conspecifics and found that wolves outperformed dogs, despite comparable levels of interest in the task. Whereas wolves coordinated their actions so as to simultaneously pull the rope ends, leading to success, dogs pulled the ropes in alternate moments, thereby never succeeding. Indeed in dog dyads it was also less likely that both members simultaneously engaged in other manipulative behaviors on the apparatus. Different conflict-management strategies are likely responsible for these results, with dogs’ avoidance of potential competition over the apparatus constraining their capacity to coordinate actions. Wolves, in contrast, did not hesitate to manipulate the ropes simultaneously, and once cooperation was initiated, rapidly learned to coordinate in more complex conditions as well. Social dynamics (rank and affiliation) played a key role in success rates. Results call those domestication hypotheses that suggest dogs evolved greater cooperative inclinations into question, and rather support the idea that dogs’ and wolves’ different social ecologies played a role in affecting their capacity for conspecific cooperation and communication.
Просмотров: 1749 ScienceVio
Human-level control through deep reinforcement learning. Volodymyr Mnih et al (2015), Nature http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14236 The theory of reinforcement learning provides a normative account, deeply rooted in psychological and neuroscientific perspectives on animal behaviour, of how agents may optimize their control of an environment. To use reinforcement learning successfully in situations approaching real-world complexity, however, agents are confronted with a difficult task: they must derive efficient representations of the environment from high-dimensional sensory inputs, and use these to generalize past experience to new situations. Remarkably, humans and other animals seem to solve this problem through a harmonious combination of reinforcement learning and hierarchical sensory processing systems, the former evidenced by a wealth of neural data revealing notable parallels between the phasic signals emitted by dopaminergic neurons and temporal difference reinforcement learning algorithms. While reinforcement learning agents have achieved some successes in a variety of domains, their applicability has previously been limited to domains in which useful features can be handcrafted, or to domains with fully observed, low-dimensional state spaces. Here we use recent advances in training deep neural networks to develop a novel artificial agent, termed a deep Q-network, that can learn successful policies directly from high-dimensional sensory inputs using end-to-end reinforcement learning. We tested this agent on the challenging domain of classic Atari 2600 games. We demonstrate that the deep Q-network agent, receiving only the pixels and the game score as inputs, was able to surpass the performance of all previous algorithms and achieve a level comparable to that of a professional human games tester across a set of 49 games, using the same algorithm, network architecture and hyperparameters. This work bridges the divide between high-dimensional sensory inputs and actions, resulting in the first artificial agent that is capable of learning to excel at a diverse array of challenging tasks.
Просмотров: 16020 ScienceVio
Teslaphoresis of Carbon Nanotubes. Lindsey R. Bornhoeft et al (2016), ACS Nano http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.6b02313 This paper introduces Teslaphoresis, the directed motion and self-assembly of matter by a Tesla coil, and studies this electrokinetic phenomenon using single-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs). Conventional directed self-assembly of matter using electric fields has been restricted to small scale structures, but with Teslaphoresis, we exceed this limitation by using the Tesla coil’s antenna to create a gradient high-voltage force field that projects into free space. CNTs placed within the Teslaphoretic (TEP) field polarize and self-assemble into wires that span from the nanoscale to the macroscale, the longest thus far being 15 cm. We show that the TEP field not only directs the self-assembly of long nanotube wires at remote distances (~30 cm) but can also wirelessly power nanotube-based LED circuits. Furthermore, individualized CNTs self-organize to form long parallel arrays with high fidelity alignment to the TEP field. Thus, Teslaphoresis is effective for directed self-assembly from the bottom-up to the macroscale.
Просмотров: 2109 ScienceVio
Highly compressible 3D periodic graphene aerogel microlattices. Cheng Zhu et al (2015), Nature Communications http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7962 Graphene is a two-dimensional material that offers a unique combination of low density, exceptional mechanical properties, large surface area and excellent electrical conductivity. Recent progress has produced bulk 3D assemblies of graphene, such as graphene aerogels, but they possess purely stochastic porous networks, which limit their performance compared with the potential of an engineered architecture. Here we report the fabrication of periodic graphene aerogel microlattices, possessing an engineered architecture via a 3D printing technique known as direct ink writing. The 3D printed graphene aerogels are lightweight, highly conductive and exhibit supercompressibility (up to 90% compressive strain). Moreover, the Young’s moduli of the 3D printed graphene aerogels show an order of magnitude improvement over bulk graphene materials with comparable geometric density and possess large surface areas. Adapting the 3D printing technique to graphene aerogels realizes the possibility of fabricating a myriad of complex aerogel architectures for a broad range of applications.
Просмотров: 4790 ScienceVio
A three-dimensional actuated origami-inspired transformable metamaterial with multiple degrees of freedom. Johannes T.B. Overvelde (2016), Nature Communications http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10929 Reconfigurable devices, whose shape can be drastically altered, are central to expandable shelters, deployable space structures, reversible encapsulation systems and medical tools and robots. All these applications require structures whose shape can be actively controlled, both for deployment and to conform to the surrounding environment. While most current reconfigurable designs are application specific, here we present a mechanical metamaterial with tunable shape, volume and stiffness. Our approach exploits a simple modular origami-like design consisting of rigid faces and hinges, which are connected to form a periodic structure consisting of extruded cubes. We show both analytically and experimentally that the transformable metamaterial has three degrees of freedom, which can be actively deformed into numerous specific shapes through embedded actuation. The proposed metamaterial can be used to realize transformable structures with arbitrary architectures, highlighting a robust strategy for the design of reconfigurable devices over a wide range of length scales. News in Indonesian http://www.laporanpenelitian.com/2016/03/76.html
Просмотров: 26485 ScienceVio
Gravid Spot Predicts Developmental Progress and Reproductive Output in a Livebearing Fish, Gambusia holbrooki. Nor Hakim Norazmi-Lokman et al (2016), PLoS ONE http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147711 In most livebearing fish, the gravid spot is an excellent marker to identify brooding females, however its use to predict progress of embryonic development, brood size, timing of parturition and overall reproductive potential of populations remain unexplored. Therefore, to understand these relationships, this study quantified visual attributes (intensity and size) of the gravid spot in relation to key internal development in Gambusia holbrooki. Observations show that the colour of the gravid spot arises from progressive melanisation on the surface of the ovarian sac at its hind margin, rather than melanisation of the developing embryos or the skin of the brooding mother. More importantly, the gravid spot intensity and size were closely linked with both developmental stages and clutch size, suggesting their reliable use as external surrogates of key internal developmental in the species. Using predictive consistency of the gravid spot, we also determined the effect of rearing temperature (23°C and 25°C) on gestation period and parturition behaviour. The results show that gestation period was significantly reduced (F = 364.58; df = 1,48; P 0.05) at 25°C. However there was no significant difference in average number of fry parturated in the two temperature groups (P 0.05), reaffirming that gravid spot intensity is a reliable predictor of reproductive output. The parturition in the species occurred predominantly in the morning and in contrast to earlier reports, tails of the fry emerged first with a few exceptions of head-first, twin and premature births. This study demonstrates utility of the gravid spot for downstream reproductive investigations in a live-bearing fish both in the field and laboratory. The reproducibility of the relationships (intensity with both developmental stage and clutch size), imply that they are also relevant to wild populations that experience varying temperature climes and stressors, significant deviations of which may serve as indicators of environmental health and climate variability.
Просмотров: 13280 ScienceVio
Biohybrid robot powered by an antagonistic pair of skeletal muscle tissues. Yuya Morimoto et al (2018), Science Robotics https://doi.org/10.1126/scirobotics.aat4440 Biohybrid robots are attracting attention as promising candidates to enhance robot applicability to studies on biological designs and in vitro construction of biological dynamic systems. Rapid progress in biohybrid robots with skeletal muscle tissues formed on a flexible substrate has enabled various types of locomotion powered by muscle tissue. However, it has been difficult to achieve high levels of both large and long-term actuations of the skeletal muscle tissues because of their spontaneous shrinkage through the course of the tissue culture. To overcome this limitation, we adapted the concept of biological systems and developed a biohybrid robot actuated by an antagonistic pair of skeletal muscle tissues. Our robot achieved large actuation (~90° of rotation of a joint) by selective contractions of the skeletal muscle tissues and a long lifetime (~1 week) by balancing tensions of the antagonistic tissues to prevent the spontaneous shrinkage. As a demonstration, we showed that our biohybrid robots allowed a pick-and-place manipulation of objects. This research may provide a platform to exceed the limitations of design in conventional biohybrid robots and replicate various lifelike movements.
Просмотров: 100312 ScienceVio
Cortical control of a tablet computer by people with paralysis. Paul Nuyujukian et al (2018), PLOS ONE https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0204566 General-purpose computers have become ubiquitous and important for everyday life, but they are difficult for people with paralysis to use. Specialized software and personalized input devices can improve access, but often provide only limited functionality. In this study, three research participants with tetraplegia who had multielectrode arrays implanted in motor cortex as part of the BrainGate2 clinical trial used an intracortical brain-computer interface (iBCI) to control an unmodified commercial tablet computer. Neural activity was decoded in real time as a point-and-click wireless Bluetooth mouse, allowing participants to use common and recreational applications (web browsing, email, chatting, playing music on a piano application, sending text messages, etc.). Two of the participants also used the iBCI to “chat” with each other in real time. This study demonstrates, for the first time, high-performance iBCI control of an unmodified, commercially available, general-purpose mobile computing device by people with tetraplegia.
Просмотров: 2325 ScienceVio
Acoustophoretic printing. Daniele Foresti et al (2018), Science Advances https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aat1659 Droplet-based printing methods are widely used in applications ranging from biological microarrays to additive manufacturing. However, common approaches, such as inkjet or electrohydrodynamic printing, are well suited only for materials with low viscosity or specific electromagnetic properties, respectively. While in-air acoustophoretic forces are material-independent, they are typically weak and have yet to be harnessed for printing materials. We introduce an acoustophoretic printing method that enables drop-on-demand patterning of a broad range of soft materials, including Newtonian fluids, whose viscosities span more than four orders of magnitude (0.5 to 25,000 mPa·s) and yield stress fluids (τ0 ~ 50 Pa). By exploiting the acoustic properties of a subwavelength Fabry-Perot resonator, we have generated an accurate, highly localized acoustophoretic force that can exceed the gravitational force by two orders of magnitude to eject microliter-to-nanoliter volume droplets. The versatility of acoustophoretic printing is demonstrated by patterning food, optical resins, liquid metals, and cell-laden biological matrices in desired motifs.
Просмотров: 1499 ScienceVio
Behavior and Body Patterns of the Larger Pacific Striped Octopus. Roy L. Caldwell et al (2015), PLoS ONE http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0134152 Over thirty years ago anecdotal accounts of the undescribed Larger Pacific Striped Octopus suggested behaviors previously unknown for octopuses. Beak-to-beak mating, dens shared by mating pairs, inking during mating and extended spawning were mentioned in publications, and enticed generations of cephalopod biologists. In 2012–2014 we were able to obtain several live specimens of this species, which remains without a formal description. All of the unique behaviors listed above were observed for animals in aquaria and are discussed here. We describe the behavior, body color patterns, and postures of 24 adults maintained in captivity. Chromatophore patterns of hatchlings are also shown.
Просмотров: 3785 ScienceVio
Gravitational lensing by spinning black holes in astrophysics, and in the movie Interstellar. Oliver James et al (2015), Classical and Quantum Gravity http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0264-9381/32/6/065001 Interstellar is the first Hollywood movie to attempt depicting a black hole as it would actually be seen by somebody nearby. For this, our team at Double Negative Visual Effects, in collaboration with physicist Kip Thorne, developed a code called Double Negative Gravitational Renderer (DNGR) to solve the equations for ray-bundle (light-beam) propagation through the curved spacetime of a spinning (Kerr) black hole, and to render IMAX-quality, rapidly changing images. Our ray-bundle techniques were crucial for achieving IMAX-quality smoothness without flickering; and they differ from physicists' image-generation techniques (which generally rely on individual light rays rather than ray bundles), and also differ from techniques previously used in the film industry's CGI community. This paper has four purposes: (i) to describe DNGR for physicists and CGI practitioners, who may find interesting and useful some of our unconventional techniques. (ii) To present the equations we use, when the camera is in arbitrary motion at an arbitrary location near a Kerr black hole, for mapping light sources to camera images via elliptical ray bundles. (iii) To describe new insights, from DNGR, into gravitational lensing when the camera is near the spinning black hole, rather than far away as in almost all prior studies; we focus on the shapes, sizes and influence of caustics and critical curves, the creation and annihilation of stellar images, the pattern of multiple images, and the influence of almost-trapped light rays, and we find similar results to the more familiar case of a camera far from the hole. (iv) To describe how the images of the black hole Gargantua and its accretion disk, in the movie Interstellar, were generated with DNGR—including, especially, the influences of (a) colour changes due to doppler and gravitational frequency shifts, (b) intensity changes due to the frequency shifts, (c) simulated camera lens flare, and (d) decisions that the film makers made about these influences and about the Gargantua's spin, with the goal of producing images understandable for a mass audience. There are no new astrophysical insights in this accretion-disk section of the paper, but disk novices may find it pedagogically interesting, and movie buffs may find its discussions of Interstellar interesting.
Просмотров: 28570 ScienceVio
Trim28 Haploinsufficiency Triggers Bi-stable Epigenetic Obesity. Kevin Dalgaard et al (2016), Cell http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2015.12.025 More than one-half billion people are obese, and despite progress in genetic research, much of the heritability of obesity remains enigmatic. Here, we identify a Trim28-dependent network capable of triggering obesity in a non-Mendelian, “on/off” manner. Trim28+/D9 mutant mice exhibit a bi-modal body-weight distribution, with isogenic animals randomly emerging as either normal or obese and few intermediates. We find that the obese-“on” state is characterized by reduced expression of an imprinted gene network including Nnat, Peg3, Cdkn1c, and Plagl1 and that independent targeting of these alleles recapitulates the stochastic bi-stable disease phenotype. Adipose tissue transcriptome analyses in children indicate that humans too cluster into distinct sub-populations, stratifying according to Trim28 expression, transcriptome organization, and obesity-associated imprinted gene dysregulation. These data provide evidence of discrete polyphenism in mouse and man and thus carry important implications for complex trait genetics, evolution, and medicine. News in Indonesian http://www.laporanpenelitian.com/2016/02/16.html
Просмотров: 2072 ScienceVio
Holographic acoustic elements for manipulation of levitated objects. Asier Marzo et al (2015), Nature Communications http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms9661 Sound can levitate objects of different sizes and materials through air, water and tissue. This allows us to manipulate cells, liquids, compounds or living things without touching or contaminating them. However, acoustic levitation has required the targets to be enclosed with acoustic elements or had limited manoeuvrability. Here we optimize the phases used to drive an ultrasonic phased array and show that acoustic levitation can be employed to translate, rotate and manipulate particles using even a single-sided emitter. Furthermore, we introduce the holographic acoustic elements framework that permits the rapid generation of traps and provides a bridge between optical and acoustical trapping. Acoustic structures shaped as tweezers, twisters or bottles emerge as the optimum mechanisms for tractor beams or containerless transportation. Single-beam levitation could manipulate particles inside our body for applications in targeted drug delivery or acoustically controlled micro-machines that do not interfere with magnetic resonance imaging. News in Indonesian http://www.laporanpenelitian.com/2015/10/12.html
Просмотров: 7485 ScienceVio
Shape-morphing composites with designed micro-architectures. Jennifer N. Rodriguez et al (2016), Scientific Reports http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep27933 Shape memory polymers (SMPs) are attractive materials due to their unique mechanical properties, including high deformation capacity and shape recovery. SMPs are easier to process, lightweight, and inexpensive compared to their metallic counterparts, shape memory alloys. However, SMPs are limited to relatively small form factors due to their low recovery stresses. Lightweight, micro-architected composite SMPs may overcome these size limitations and offer the ability to combine functional properties (e.g., electrical conductivity) with shape memory behavior. Fabrication of 3D SMP thermoset structures via traditional manufacturing methods is challenging, especially for designs that are composed of multiple materials within porous microarchitectures designed for specific shape change strategies, e.g. sequential shape recovery. We report thermoset SMP composite inks containing some materials from renewable resources that can be 3D printed into complex, multi-material architectures that exhibit programmable shape changes with temperature and time. Through addition of fiber-based fillers, we demonstrate printing of electrically conductive SMPs where multiple shape states may induce functional changes in a device and that shape changes can be actuated via heating of printed composites. The ability of SMPs to recover their original shapes will be advantageous for a broad range of applications, including medical, aerospace, and robotic devices.
Просмотров: 1296 ScienceVio
Traumatic insemination and female counter-adaptation in Strepsiptera (Insecta). Miriam Peinert et al (2016), Scientific Reports http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep25052 In a few insect groups, males pierce the female’s integument with their penis during copulation to transfer sperm. This so-called traumatic insemination was previously confirmed for Strepsiptera but only in species with free-living females. The more derived endoparasitic groups (Stylopidia) were suggested to exhibit brood canal mating. Further, it was assumed that females mate once and that pheromone production ceases immediately thereafter. Here we examined Stylops ovinae to provide details of the mating behaviour within Stylopidia. By using μCT imaging of Stylops in copula, we observed traumatic insemination and not, as previously suggested, brood canal mating. The penis is inserted in an invagination of the female cephalothorax and perforates its cuticle. Further we show that female Stylops are polyandrous and that males detect the mating status of the females. Compared to other strepsipterans the copulation is distinctly prolonged. This may reduce the competition between sperm of the first mating male with sperm from others. We describe a novel paragenital organ of Stylops females, the cephalothoracic invagination, which we suggest to reduce the cost of injuries. In contrast to previous interpretations we postulate that the original mode of traumatic insemination was maintained after the transition from free-living to endoparasitic strepsipteran females. News in Indonesian http://www.laporanpenelitian.com/2016/05/54.html
Просмотров: 18164 ScienceVio
Hygrobot: A self-locomotive ratcheted actuator powered by environmental humidity. Beomjune Shin et al (2018), Science Robotics http://robotics.sciencemag.org/content/3/14/eaar2629 Microrobots that are light and agile yet require no artificial power input can be widely used in medical, military, and industrial applications. As an actuation system to drive such robots, here we report a biologically inspired bilayer structure that harnesses the environmental humidity energy, with ratchets to rectify the motion. We named this actuator-ratchet system the hygrobot. The actuator uses a hygroscopically responsive film consisting of aligned nanofibers produced by directional electrospinning, which quickly swells and shrinks in lengthwise direction in response to the change of humidity. The ratchets based on asymmetric friction coefficients rectify oscillatory bending motion in a directional locomotion. We mathematically analyzed the mechanical response of the hygrobot, which allowed not only prediction of its performance but also the optimal design to maximize the locomotion speed given geometric and environmental constraints. The hygrobot sterilized a trail across an agar plate without any artificial energy supply.
Просмотров: 25155 ScienceVio
Objective pulsatile tinnitus. Dario A. Yacovino and Pablo Casas (2015), Clinical Case Reports http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccr3.430 Tinnitus is the usually unwanted perception of sound, in most cases there is no genuine physical source of sound. Less than 10% of tinnitus patients suffer from pulsatile tinnitus. Objective Pulsatile tinnitus can also be the first indication of dural arteriovenous fistula, so examination for such vascular origin must be performed.
Просмотров: 22217 ScienceVio
Writing in the granular gel medium. Tapomoy Bhattacharjee et al (2015), Science Advances http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500655 Gels made from soft microscale particles smoothly transition between the fluid and solid states, making them an ideal medium in which to create macroscopic structures with microscopic precision. While tracing out spatial paths with an injection tip, the granular gel fluidizes at the point of injection and then rapidly solidifies, trapping injected material in place. This physical approach to creating three-dimensional (3D) structures negates the effects of surface tension, gravity, and particle diffusion, allowing a limitless breadth of materials to be written. With this method, we used silicones, hydrogels, colloids, and living cells to create complex large aspect ratio 3D objects, thin closed shells, and hierarchically branched tubular networks. We crosslinked polymeric materials and removed them from the granular gel, whereas uncrosslinked particulate systems were left supported within the medium for long times. This approach can be immediately used in diverse areas, contributing to tissue engineering, flexible electronics, particle engineering, smart materials, and encapsulation technologies.
Просмотров: 4357 ScienceVio
Free-standing liquid membranes as unusual particle separators. Birgitt Boschitsch Stogin et al (2018), Science Advances https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aat3276 Separation of substances is central to many industrial and medical processes ranging from wastewater treatment and purification to medical diagnostics. Conventional solid-based membranes allow particles below a critical size to pass through a membrane pore while inhibiting the passage of particles larger than that critical size; membranes that are capable of showing reversed behavior, that is, the passage of large particles and inhibition of small ones, are unusual in conventional engineering applications. Inspired by endocytosis and the self-healing properties of liquids, we show that free-standing membranes composed entirely of liquid can be designed to retain particles smaller than a critical size given the particle inertial properties. We further demonstrate that these membranes can be used for previously unachievable applications, including serving as particle barriers that allow macroscopic device access through the membrane (for example, open surgery) or as selective membranes inhibiting gas/vapor passage while allowing solids to pass through them (for example, waste/odor management).
Просмотров: 3622 ScienceVio
A microfluidic platform enabling single-cell RNA-seq of multigenerational lineages. Robert J. Kimmerling et al (2016), Nature Communications http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms10220 We introduce a microfluidic platform that enables off-chip single-cell RNA-seq after multi-generational lineage tracking under controlled culture conditions. We use this platform to generate whole-transcriptome profiles of primary, activated murine CD8+ T-cell and lymphocytic leukemia cell line lineages. Here we report that both cell types have greater intra- than inter-lineage transcriptional similarity. For CD8+ T-cells, genes with functional annotation relating to lymphocyte differentiation and function—including Granzyme B—are enriched among the genes that demonstrate greater intra-lineage expression level similarity. Analysis of gene expression covariance with matched measurements of time since division reveals cell type-specific transcriptional signatures that correspond with cell cycle progression. We believe that the ability to directly measure the effects of lineage and cell cycle-dependent transcriptional profiles of single cells will be broadly useful to fields where heterogeneous populations of cells display distinct clonal trajectories, including immunology, cancer, and developmental biology.
Просмотров: 2088 ScienceVio
Thirst driving and suppressing signals encoded by distinct neural populations in the brain. Yuki Oka, Mingyu Ye & Charles S. Zuker (2015), Nature, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14108 Thirst is the basic instinct to drink water. Previously, it was shown that neurons in several circumventricular organs of the hypothalamus are activated by thirst-inducing conditions1. Here we identify two distinct, genetically separable neural populations in the subfornical organ that trigger or suppress thirst. We show that optogenetic activation of subfornical organ excitatory neurons, marked by the expression of the transcription factor ETV-1, evokes intense drinking behaviour, and does so even in fully water-satiated animals. The light-induced response is highly specific for water, immediate and strictly locked to the laser stimulus. In contrast, activation of a second population of subfornical organ neurons, marked by expression of the vesicular GABA transporter VGAT, drastically suppresses drinking, even in water-craving thirsty animals. These results reveal an innate brain circuit that can turn an animal’s water-drinking behaviour on and off, and probably functions as a centre for thirst control in the mammalian brain.
Просмотров: 4958 ScienceVio
Acoustic tweezers via sub–time-of-flight regime surface acoustic waves. David J. Collins et al (2016), Science Advances http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1600089 Micrometer-scale acoustic waves are highly useful for refined optomechanical and acoustofluidic manipulation, where these fields are spatially localized along the transducer aperture but not along the acoustic propagation direction. In the case of acoustic tweezers, such a conventional acoustic standing wave results in particle and cell patterning across the entire width of a microfluidic channel, preventing selective trapping. We demonstrate the use of nanosecond-scale pulsed surface acoustic waves (SAWs) with a pulse period that is less than the time of flight between opposing transducers to generate localized time-averaged patterning regions while using conventional electrode structures. These nodal positions can be readily and arbitrarily positioned in two dimensions and within the patterning region itself through the imposition of pulse delays, frequency modulation, and phase shifts. This straightforward concept adds new spatial dimensions to which acoustic fields can be localized in SAW applications in a manner analogous to optical tweezers, including spatially selective acoustic tweezers and optical waveguides.
Просмотров: 1732 ScienceVio
KeSimpulan | Electronic dura mater for long-term multimodal neural interfaces. Ivan R. Minev et al (2015), Science, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.1260318
Просмотров: 3080 ScienceVio
In situ X-ray imaging of defect and molten pool dynamics in laser additive manufacturing. Chu Lun Alex Leung et al (2018), Nature Communications https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-03734-7 The laser–matter interaction and solidification phenomena associated with laser additive manufacturing (LAM) remain unclear, slowing its process development and optimisation. Here, through in situ and operando high-speed synchrotron X-ray imaging, we reveal the underlying physical phenomena during the deposition of the first and second layer melt tracks. We show that the laser-induced gas/vapour jet promotes the formation of melt tracks and denuded zones via spattering (at a velocity of 1 m s−1). We also uncover mechanisms of pore migration by Marangoni-driven flow (recirculating at a velocity of 0.4 m s−1), pore dissolution and dispersion by laser re-melting. We develop a mechanism map for predicting the evolution of melt features, changes in melt track morphology from a continuous hemi-cylindrical track to disconnected beads with decreasing linear energy density and improved molten pool wetting with increasing laser power. Our results clarify aspects of the physics behind LAM, which are critical for its development.
Просмотров: 811 ScienceVio
Bionic reconstruction to restore hand function after brachial plexus injury: a case series of three patients. Oskar C Aszmann et al (2015), The Lancet http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61776-1 Brachial plexus injuries can permanently impair hand function, yet present surgical reconstruction provides only poor results. Here, we present for the first time bionic reconstruction; a combined technique of selective nerve and muscle transfers, elective amputation, and prosthetic rehabilitation to regain hand function.
Просмотров: 7364 ScienceVio
Soft material for soft actuators. Aslan Miriyev, Kenneth Stack and Hod Lipson (2017), Nature Communications https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-00685-3 Abstract Inspired by natural muscle, a key challenge in soft robotics is to develop self-contained electrically driven soft actuators with high strain density. Various characteristics of existing technologies, such as the high voltages required to trigger electroactive polymers (~1KV), low strain (~10%) of shape memory alloys and the need for external compressors and pressure-regulating components for hydraulic or pneumatic fluidicelastomer actuators, limit their practicality for untethered applications. Here we show a single self-contained soft robust composite material that combines the elastic properties of a polymeric matrix and the extreme volume change accompanying liquid–vapor transition. The material combines a high strain (up to 900%) and correspondingly high stress (up to 1.3 MPa) with low density (0.84 g cm-3). Along with its extremely low cost (about 3 cent per gram), simplicity of fabrication and environment-friendliness, these properties could enable new kinds of electrically driven entirely soft robots.
Просмотров: 3870 ScienceVio
KeSimpulan | Single-shot compressed ultrafast photography at one hundred billion frames per second. Liang Gao et al. (2014), Nature, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature14005
Просмотров: 5337 ScienceVio
Morphometric Differences of Vocal Tract Articulators in Different Loudness Conditions in Singing. Matthias Echternach et al (2016), PLoS ONE http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153792 Introduction Dynamic MRI analysis of phonation has gathered interest in voice and speech physiology. However, there are limited data addressing the extent to which articulation is dependent on loudness. Material and Methods 12 professional singer subjects of different voice classifications were analysed concerning the vocal tract profiles recorded with dynamic real-time MRI with 25fps in different pitch and loudness conditions. The subjects were asked to sing ascending scales on the vowel /a/ in three loudness conditions (comfortable = mf, very soft = pp, very loud = ff, respectively). Furthermore, fundamental frequency and sound pressure level were analysed from the simultaneously recorded optical audio signal after noise cancellation. Results The data show articulatory differences with respect to changes of both pitch and loudness. Here, lip opening and pharynx width were increased. While the vertical larynx position was rising with pitch it was lower for greater loudness. Especially, the lip opening and pharynx width were more strongly correlated with the sound pressure level than with pitch. Conclusion For the vowel /a/ loudness has an effect on articulation during singing which should be considered when articulatory vocal tract data are interpreted.
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Origami-inspired, on-demand deployable and collapsible mechanical metamaterials with tunable stiffness. Zirui Zhai et al (2018), PNAS https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1720171115 Origami has been employed to build deployable mechanical metamaterials through folding and unfolding along the crease lines. Deployable metamaterials are usually flexible, particularly along their deploying and collapsing directions, which unfortunately in many cases leads to an unstable deployed state, i.e., small perturbations may collapse the structure along the same deployment path. Here we create an origami-inspired mechanical metamaterial with on-demand deployability and selective collapsibility through energy analysis. This metamaterial has autonomous deployability from the collapsed state and can be selectively collapsed along two different paths, embodying low stiffness for one path and substantially high stiffness for another path. The created mechanical metamaterial yields load-bearing capability in the deployed direction while possessing great deployability and collapsibility. The principle in this work can be utilized to design and create versatile origami-inspired mechanical metamaterials that can find many applications.
Просмотров: 836 ScienceVio
Long-tip high-speed atomic force microscopy for nanometer-scale imaging in live cells. Mikihiro Shibata et al (2015), Scientific Reports http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep08724 Visualization of morphological dynamics of live cells with nanometer resolution under physiological conditions is highly desired, but challenging. It has been demonstrated that high-speed atomic force microscopy is a powerful technique for visualizing dynamics of biomolecules under physiological conditions. However, application of high-speed atomic force microscopy for imaging larger objects such as live mammalian cells has been complicated because of the collision between the cantilever and samples. Here, we demonstrate that attaching an extremely long (~3 μm) and thin (~5 nm) tip by amorphous carbon to the cantilever allows us to image the surface structure of live cells with the spatiotemporal resolution of nanometers and seconds. We demonstrate that long-tip high-speed atomic force microscopy is capable of imaging morphogenesis of filopodia, membrane ruffles, pit formation, and endocytosis in COS-7, HeLa cells and hippocampal neurons.
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In hot and cold water: differential life-history traits are key to success in contrasting thermal deep-sea environments. Leigh Marsh et al (2015), Journal of Animal Ecology http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12337 Few species of reptant decapod crustaceans thrive in the cold-stenothermal waters of the Southern Ocean. However, abundant populations of a new species of anomuran crab, Kiwa tyleri, occur at hydrothermal vent fields on the East Scotia Ridge. As a result of local thermal conditions at the vents, these crabs are not restricted by the physiological limits that otherwise exclude reptant decapods south of the polar front. We reveal the adult life history of this species by piecing together variation in microdistribution, body size frequency, sex ratio, and ovarian and embryonic development, which indicates a pattern in the distribution of female Kiwaidae in relation to their reproductive development. High-density ‘Kiwa’ assemblages observed in close proximity to sources of vent fluids are constrained by the thermal limit of elevated temperatures and the availability of resources for chemosynthetic nutrition. Although adult Kiwaidae depend on epibiotic chemosynthetic bacteria for nutrition, females move offsite after extrusion of their eggs to protect brooding embryos from the chemically harsh, thermally fluctuating vent environment. Consequently, brooding females in the periphery of the vent field are in turn restricted by low-temperature physiological boundaries of the deep-water Southern Ocean environment. Females have a high reproductive investment in few, large, yolky eggs, facilitating full lecithotrophy, with the release of larvae prolonged, and asynchronous. After embryos are released, larvae are reliant on locating isolated active areas of hydrothermal flow in order to settle and survive as chemosynthetic adults. Where the cold water restricts the ability of all adult stages to migrate over long distances, these low temperatures may facilitate the larvae in the location of vent sites by extending the larval development period through hypometabolism. These differential life-history adaptations to contrasting thermal environments lead to a disjunct life history among males and females of K. tyleri, which is key to their success in the Southern Ocean vent environment. We highlight the complexity in understanding the importance of life-history biology, in combination with environmental, ecological and physiological factors contributing to the overall global distribution of vent-endemic species.
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Origami-inspired active graphene-based paper for programmable instant self-folding walking devices. Jiuke Mu et al (2015), Science Advances http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1500533 Origami-inspired active graphene-based paper with programmed gradients in vertical and lateral directions is developed to address many of the limitations of polymer active materials including slow response and violent operation methods. Specifically, we used function-designed graphene oxide as nanoscale building blocks to fabricate an all-graphene self-folding paper that has a single-component gradient structure. A functional device composed of this graphene paper can (i) adopt predesigned shapes, (ii) walk, and (iii) turn a corner. These processes can be remote-controlled by gentle light or heating. We believe that this self-folding material holds potential for a wide range of applications such as sensing, artificial muscles, and robotics.
Просмотров: 3433 ScienceVio
Direct Observation of Graphene Growth and Associated Copper Substrate Dynamics by in Situ Scanning Electron Microscopy. Zhu-Jun Wang et al (2015), ACS Nano http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn5059826 This work highlights the importance of in situ experiments for an improved understanding of graphene growth on copper via metal-catalyzed chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Graphene growth inside the chamber of a modified environmental scanning electron microscope under relevant low-pressure CVD conditions allows visualizing structural dynamics of the active catalyst simultaneously with graphene nucleation and growth in an unparalleled way. It enables the observation of a complete CVD process from substrate annealing through graphene nucleation and growth and, finally, substrate cooling in real time and nanometer-scale resolution without the need of sample transfer. A strong dependence of surface dynamics such as sublimation and surface premelting on grain orientation is demonstrated, and the influence of substrate dynamics on graphene nucleation and growth is presented. Insights on the growth mechanism are provided by a simultaneous observation of the growth front propagation and nucleation rate. Furthermore, the role of trace amounts of oxygen during growth is discussed and related to graphene-induced surface reconstructions during cooling. Above all, this work demonstrates the potential of the method for in situ studies of surface dynamics on active metal catalysts.
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Wireless Cortical Brain-Machine Interface for Whole-Body Navigation in Primates. Sankaranarayani Rajangam et al (2016), Scientific Reports http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep22170 Several groups have developed brain-machine-interfaces (BMIs) that allow primates to use cortical activity to control artificial limbs. Yet, it remains unknown whether cortical ensembles could represent the kinematics of whole-body navigation and be used to operate a BMI that moves a wheelchair continuously in space. Here we show that rhesus monkeys can learn to navigate a robotic wheelchair, using their cortical activity as the main control signal. Two monkeys were chronically implanted with multichannel microelectrode arrays that allowed wireless recordings from ensembles of premotor and sensorimotor cortical neurons. Initially, while monkeys remained seated in the robotic wheelchair, passive navigation was employed to train a linear decoder to extract 2D wheelchair kinematics from cortical activity. Next, monkeys employed the wireless BMI to translate their cortical activity into the robotic wheelchair’s translational and rotational velocities. Over time, monkeys improved their ability to navigate the wheelchair toward the location of a grape reward. The navigation was enacted by populations of cortical neurons tuned to whole-body displacement. During practice with the apparatus, we also noticed the presence of a cortical representation of the distance to reward location. These results demonstrate that intracranial BMIs could restore whole-body mobility to severely paralyzed patients in the future. News in Indonesian http://www.laporanpenelitian.com/2016/03/62.html
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Microgravity promotes osteoclast activity in medaka fish reared at the international space station. Masahiro Chatani et al (2015), Scientific Reports http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/srep14172 The bone mineral density (BMD) of astronauts decreases specifically in the weight-bearing sites during spaceflight. It seems that osteoclasts would be affected by a change in gravity; however, the molecular mechanism involved remains unclear. Here, we show that the mineral density of the pharyngeal bone and teeth region of TRAP-GFP/Osterix-DsRed double transgenic medaka fish was decreased and that osteoclasts were activated when the fish were reared for 56 days at the international space station. In addition, electron microscopy observation revealed a low degree of roundness of mitochondria in osteoclasts. In the whole transcriptome analysis, fkbp5 and ddit4 genes were strongly up-regulated in the flight group. The fish were filmed for abnormal behavior; and, interestingly, the medaka tended to become motionless in the late stage of exposure. These results reveal impaired physiological function with a change in mechanical force under microgravity, which impairment was accompanied by osteoclast activation.
Просмотров: 2403 ScienceVio
The effects of domestication and ontogeny on cognition in dogs and wolves. Michelle Lampe et al. (2017), Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-017-12055-6 Cognition is one of the most flexible tools enabling adaptation to environmental variation. Living close to humans is thought to influence social as well as physical cognition of animals throughout domestication and ontogeny. Here, we investigated to what extent physical cognition and two domains of social cognition of dogs have been affected by domestication and ontogeny. To address the effects of domestication, we compared captive wolves (n = 12) and dogs (n = 14) living in packs under the same conditions. To explore developmental effects, we compared these dogs to pet dogs (n = 12) living in human families. The animals were faced with a series of object-choice tasks, in which their response to communicative, behavioural and causal cues was tested. We observed that wolves outperformed dogs in their ability to follow causal cues, suggesting that domestication altered specific skills relating to this domain, whereas developmental effects had surprisingly no influence. All three groups performed similarly in the communicative and behavioural conditions, suggesting higher ontogenetic flexibility in the two social domains. These differences across cognitive domains need to be further investigated, by comparing domestic and non-domesticated animals living in varying conditions.
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Coulomb explosion during the early stages of the reaction of alkali metals with water. Philip E. Mason et al (2015), Nature Chemistry, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nchem.2161 Alkali metals can react explosively with water and it is textbook knowledge that this vigorous behaviour results from heat release, steam formation and ignition of the hydrogen gas that is produced. Here we suggest that the initial process enabling the alkali metal explosion in water is, however, of a completely different nature. High-speed camera imaging of liquid drops of a sodium/potassium alloy in water reveals submillisecond formation of metal spikes that protrude from the surface of the drop. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that on immersion in water there is an almost immediate release of electrons from the metal surface. The system thus quickly reaches the Rayleigh instability limit, which leads to a ‘coulomb explosion’ of the alkali metal drop. Consequently, a new metal surface in contact with water is formed, which explains why the reaction does not become self-quenched by its products, but can rather lead to explosive behaviour.
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A “Pedi” Cures All: Toenail Trimming and the Treatment of Ulcerative Dermatitis in Mice. Sean C. Adams et al (2016), PLoS ONE http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144871 Ulcerative Dermatitis (UD) is the most common cause of unplanned euthanasia in mice used in research, with prevalence rates reported between 4 and 21%. UD is characterized by a deep, ulcerative lesion that appears most commonly over the dorsal neck and is attendant with an intense pruritus. The underlying cause of UD is currently unknown, and as a consequence, there are no directed therapies that resolve lesions reliably. However, there is a growing body of evidence that suggests a behavioral component to the onset, maintenance, and progression of UD lesions. Scratching behavior in response to the intense pruritus associated with UD lesions may be an effective target for interventional therapies. We hypothesized that interfering with scratching behavior by trimming the toenails of mice with UD, would resolve UD lesions. To test this hypothesis, we first evaluated the efficacy of toenail trims with a single application of Vetericyn at the time of treatment versus our previous standard of care, topical Tresaderm applied daily. We found that toenail trims were significantly more effective at resolving lesions (n = 39 toenail trims, n = 100 Tresaderm, p 0.0001) with 93.3% of animals healing by 14 days (median time to lesion resolution). Furthermore, dorsal neck lesions did not recur by 42 days after a single toenail trim (n = 54); however, flank lesions did not resolve and the outcome of the two lesion distributions following treatment were significantly different (p 0.0001). Finally, we implemented toenail trims at an institutional level and found similar efficacies (approximately 90%) for toenail trims regardless of one-time topical supplement used (triple antibiotic ointment, Tresaderm, and Vetericyn, n = 55, 58, 18, p = 0.63). This is the first report of a highly effective treatment for one of the most serious welfare issues in laboratory mice.
Просмотров: 1918 ScienceVio
F-actin bundles direct the initiation and orientation of lamellipodia through adhesion-based signaling. Heath E. Johnson et al (2015), The Journal of Cell Biology http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201406102 Mesenchymal cells such as fibroblasts are weakly polarized and reorient directionality by a lamellipodial branching mechanism that is stabilized by phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling. However, the mechanisms by which new lamellipodia are initiated and directed are unknown. Using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to monitor cytoskeletal and signaling dynamics in migrating cells, we show that peripheral F-actin bundles/filopodia containing fascin-1 serve as templates for formation and orientation of lamellipodia. Accordingly, modulation of fascin-1 expression tunes cell shape, quantified as the number of morphological extensions. Ratiometric imaging reveals that F-actin bundles/filopodia play both structural and signaling roles, as they prime the activation of PI3K signaling mediated by integrins and focal adhesion kinase. Depletion of fascin-1 ablated fibroblast haptotaxis on fibronectin but not platelet-derived growth factor chemotaxis. Based on these findings, we conceptualize haptotactic sensing as an exploration, with F-actin bundles directing and lamellipodia propagating the process and with signaling mediated by adhesions playing the role of integrator.
Просмотров: 5123 ScienceVio
Dynamic Modelling Reveals ‘Hotspots’ on the Pathway to Enzyme-Substrate Complex Formation. Shane E. Gordon (2016), PLoS Computational Biology http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1004811 Dihydrodipicolinate synthase (DHDPS) catalyzes the first committed step in the diaminopimelate pathway of bacteria, yielding amino acids required for cell wall and protein biosyntheses. The essentiality of the enzyme to bacteria, coupled with its absence in humans, validates DHDPS as an antibacterial drug target. Conventional drug design efforts have thus far been unsuccessful in identifying potent DHDPS inhibitors. Here, we make use of contemporary molecular dynamics simulation and Markov state models to explore the interactions between DHDPS from the human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus and its cognate substrate, pyruvate. Our simulations recover the crystallographic DHDPS-pyruvate complex without a priori knowledge of the final bound structure. The highly conserved residue Arg140 was found to have a pivotal role in coordinating the entry of pyruvate into the active site from bulk solvent, consistent with previous kinetic reports, indicating an indirect role for the residue in DHDPS catalysis. A metastable binding intermediate characterized by multiple points of intermolecular interaction between pyruvate and key DHDPS residue Arg140 was found to be a highly conserved feature of the binding trajectory when comparing alternative binding pathways. By means of umbrella sampling we show that these binding intermediates are thermodynamically metastable, consistent with both the available experimental data and the substrate binding model presented in this study. Our results provide insight into an important enzyme-substrate interaction in atomistic detail that offers the potential to be exploited for the discovery of more effective DHDPS inhibitors and, in a broader sense, dynamic protein-drug interactions.
Просмотров: 1144 ScienceVio
An iPhone Application for Blood Pressure Monitoring via the Oscillometric Finger Pressing Method. Anand Chandrasekhar et al (2018), Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-31632-x We developed an iPhone X application to measure blood pressure (BP) via the “oscillometric finger pressing method”. The user presses her fingertip on both the front camera and screen to increase the external pressure of the underlying artery, while the application measures the resulting variable-amplitude blood volume oscillations via the camera and applied pressure via the strain gauge array under the screen. The application also visually guides the fingertip placement and actuation and then computes BP from the measurements just like many automatic cuff devices. We tested the application, along with a finger cuff device, against a standard cuff device. The application yielded bias and precision errors of −4.0 and 11.4 mmHg for systolic BP and −9.4 and 9.7 mmHg for diastolic BP (n = 18). These errors were near the finger cuff device errors. This proof-of-concept study surprisingly indicates that cuff-less and calibration-free BP monitoring may be feasible with many existing and forthcoming smartphones.
Просмотров: 2478 ScienceVio
Highest Resolution In Vivo Human Brain MRI Using Prospective Motion Correction. Daniel Stucht et al (2015), PLoS ONE http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133921 High field MRI systems, such as 7 Tesla (T) scanners, can deliver higher signal to noise ratio (SNR) than lower field scanners and thus allow for the acquisition of data with higher spatial resolution, which is often demanded by users in the fields of clinical and neuroscientific imaging. However, high resolution scans may require long acquisition times, which in turn increase the discomfort for the subject and the risk of subject motion. Even with a cooperative and trained subject, involuntary motion due to heartbeat, swallowing, respiration and changes in muscle tone can cause image artifacts that reduce the effective resolution. In addition, scanning with higher resolution leads to increased sensitivity to even very small movements. Prospective motion correction (PMC) at 3T and 7T has proven to increase image quality in case of subject motion. Although the application of prospective motion correction is becoming more popular, previous articles focused on proof of concept studies and technical descriptions, whereas this paper briefly describes the technical aspects of the optical tracking system, marker fixation and cross calibration and focuses on the application of PMC to very high resolution imaging without intentional motion. In this study we acquired in vivo MR images at 7T using prospective motion correction during long acquisitions. As a result, we present images among the highest, if not the highest resolution of in vivo human brain MRI ever acquired.
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Single-photon sensitive light-in-fight imaging. Genevieve Gariepy et al (2015), Nature Communications, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7021 The ability to record images with extreme temporal resolution enables a diverse range of applications, such as fluorescence lifetime imaging, time-of-flight depth imaging and characterization of ultrafast processes. Recently, ultrafast imaging schemes have emerged, which require either long acquisition times or raster scanning and have a requirement for sufficient signal that can only be achieved when light is reflected off an object or diffused by a strongly scattering medium. Here we present a demonstration of the potential of single-photon detector arrays for visualization and rapid characterization of events evolving on picosecond time scales. The single-photon sensitivity, temporal resolution and full-field imaging capability enables the observation of light-in-flight in air, as well as the measurement of laser-induced plasma formation and dynamics in its natural environment. The extreme sensitivity and short acquisition times pave the way for real-time imaging of ultrafast processes or visualization and tracking of objects hidden from view.
Просмотров: 3053 ScienceVio
Cyanobacteria use micro-optics to sense light direction. Nils Schuergers et al (2016), eLIFE http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12620 Bacterial phototaxis was first recognized over a century ago, but the method by which such small cells can sense the direction of illumination has remained puzzling. The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 moves with Type IV pili and measures light intensity and color with a range of photoreceptors. Here, we show that individual Synechocystis cells do not respond to a spatiotemporal gradient in light intensity, but rather they directly and accurately sense the position of a light source. We show that directional light sensing is possible because Synechocystis cells act as spherical microlenses, allowing the cell to see a light source and move towards it. A high-resolution image of the light source is focused on the edge of the cell opposite to the source, triggering movement away from the focused spot. Spherical cyanobacteria are probably the world’s smallest and oldest example of a camera eye. News in Indonesian http://www.laporanpenelitian.com/2016/02/32.html
Просмотров: 1906 ScienceVio
Nano-kirigami with giant optical chirality. Zhiguang Liu et al (2018), Science Advances https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aat4436 Kirigami enables versatile shape transformation from two-dimensional (2D) precursors to 3D architectures with simplified fabrication complexity and unconventional structural geometries. We demonstrate a one-step and on-site nano-kirigami method that avoids the prescribed multistep procedures in traditional mesoscopic kirigami or origami techniques. The nano-kirigami is readily implemented by in situ cutting and buckling a suspended gold film with programmed ion beam irradiation. By using the topography-guided stress equilibrium, rich 3D shape transformation such as buckling, rotation, and twisting of nanostructures is precisely achieved, which can be predicted by our mechanical modeling. Benefiting from the nanoscale 3D twisting features, giant optical chirality is achieved in an intuitively designed 3D pinwheel-like structure, in strong contrast to the achiral 2D precursor without nano-kirigami. The demonstrated nano-kirigami, as well as the exotic 3D nanostructures, could be adopted in broad nanofabrication platforms and could open up new possibilities for the exploration of functional micro-/nanophotonic and mechanical devices.
Просмотров: 7328 ScienceVio
Evidence for Ussurian tube-nosed bats (Murina ussuriensis) hibernating in snow. Hirofumi Hirakawa and Yu Nagasaka (2018), Scientific Reports https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-30357-1 Surviving winter is a challenge for endothermic animals living at high latitudes. In bats, some species migrate to milder climates in winter, but others presumably stay and hibernate in thermally buffered roosts. However, we know little about where, or in what roosts bats hibernate. Ussurian tube-nosed bats (Murina ussuriensis) have occasionally been observed under or near the surface of snow. We collected the details of those accounts and used our own observations to conclude that these bats hibernate in snow. To our knowledge, this is the first evidence of hibernation in snow for bats, and second for mammals, following polar bears (Ursus maritimus) denning in snow.
Просмотров: 1314 ScienceVio
Visualization of the type III secretion sorting platform of Shigella flexneri. Bo Hu et al (2015), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1411610112 Bacterial type III secretion machines are widely used to inject virulence proteins into eukaryotic host cells. These secretion machines are evolutionarily related to bacterial flagella and consist of a large cytoplasmic complex, a transmembrane basal body, and an extracellular needle. The cytoplasmic complex forms a sorting platform essential for effector selection and needle assembly, but it remains largely uncharacterized. Here we use high-throughput cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET) to visualize intact machines in a virulent Shigella flexneri strain genetically modified to produce minicells capable of interaction with host cells. A high-resolution in situ structure of the intact machine determined by subtomogram averaging reveals the cytoplasmic sorting platform, which consists of a central hub and six spokes, with a pod-like structure at the terminus of each spoke. Molecular modeling of wild-type and mutant machines allowed us to propose a model of the sorting platform in which the hub consists mainly of a hexamer of the Spa47 ATPase, whereas the MxiN protein comprises the spokes and the Spa33 protein forms the pods. Multiple contacts among those components are essential to align the Spa47 ATPase with the central channel of the MxiA protein export gate to form a unique nanomachine. The molecular architecture of the Shigella type III secretion machine and its sorting platform provide the structural foundation for further dissecting the mechanisms underlying type III secretion and pathogenesis and also highlight the major structural distinctions from bacterial flagella.
Просмотров: 1733 ScienceVio
Direct observation of the nanoscale Kirkendall effect during galvanic replacement reactions. See Wee Chee et al (2017), Nature Communications https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-017-01175-2 Galvanic replacement (GR) is a simple and widely used approach to synthesize hollow nanostructures for applications in catalysis, plasmonics, and biomedical research. The reaction is driven by the difference in electrochemical potential between two metals in a solution. However, transient stages of this reaction are not fully understood. Here, we show using liquid cell transmission electron microscopy that silver (Ag) nanocubes become hollow via the nucleation, growth, and coalescence of voids inside the nanocubes, as they undergo GR with gold (Au) ions at different temperatures. These direct in situ observations indicate that void formation due to the nanoscale Kirkendall effect occurs in conjunction with GR. Although this mechanism has been suggested before, it has not been verified experimentally until now. These experiments can inform future strategies for deriving such nanostructures by providing insights into the structural transformations as a function of Au ion concentration, oxidation state of Au, and temperature.
Просмотров: 1291 ScienceVio
Molecular mechanisms of NET formation and degradation revealed by intravital imaging in the liver vasculature. Elzbieta Kolaczkowska et al (2015), Nature Communications http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms7673 Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) composed of DNA decorated with histones and proteases trap and kill bacteria but also injure host tissue. Here we show that during a bloodstream infection with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, the majority of bacteria are sequestered immediately by hepatic Kupffer cells, resulting in transient increases in liver enzymes, focal ischaemic areas and a robust neutrophil infiltration into the liver. The neutrophils release NETs into the liver vasculature, which remain anchored to the vascular wall via von Willebrand factor and reveal significant neutrophil elastase (NE) proteolytic activity. Importantly, DNase although very effective at DNA removal, and somewhat effective at inhibiting NE proteolytic activity, fails to remove the majority of histones from the vessel wall and only partly reduces injury. By contrast, inhibition of NET production as modelled by PAD4-deficiency, or prevention of NET formation and proteolytic activity as modelled in NE−/− mice prevent collateral host tissue damage.
Просмотров: 1710 ScienceVio